June 15, 1800 - George Hadfield’s Treasury Building opened in Washington, D.C. with 69 employees beginning work in the nation’s new permanent capital.
January 20, 1801 - The Treasury Building was damaged by fire. President John Adams joined the bucket brigade.
May 14, 1801 - President Thomas Jefferson appointed Albert Gallatin as 4th Secretary of the Treasury. Gallatin served for nearly 13 years, the longest term ever served by a Secretary of the Treasury. He left his post on February 8, 1814.
July 11, 1804 - Former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and Vice President Aaron Burr dueled in Weehawken, New Jersey. Burr mortally wounded Hamilton, who died on July 12, 1804.
February 10, 1807 - The Coast Survey is established in the Department of the Treasury. It is the oldest scientific organization in the Federal Government.
September 3, 1807 - Robert Fulton registered the Clermont, the first successful steamboat, with the United States Customs Service in New York City.
December 22, 1807 - The Embargo Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Jefferson. The Act was passed in response to an incident between the USS Chesapeake and the HMS Leopold in which the Leopold fired upon the American ship, killing three and wounding 8. After boarding the Chesapeake, the British impressed four American sailors who they claimed were deserters.
April 25, 1812 - An Act of Congress established the General Land Office under the Department of the Treasury to survey new lands, specifically the Louisiana Territory.
August 24, 1814 - Following the defeat of the American militia at the Battle of Bladensburg, the British entered Washington D.C. unopposed and burned the Main Treasury Building and the White House.
April 13, 1816 - The Second Bank of the United States was chartered five years after the charter of the First Bank of the United States expired against the wishes of Secretary Albert Gallatin. President James Madison and Secretary Alexander Dallas pushed for the creation of the bank after large financial problems during and after the War of 1812, which may have been avoided if the First Bank still existed because Gallatin planned to borrow $20 million from it in a time of war.
May 19, 1828 - Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations, which taxed imported manufactured goods in an attempt to protect Northern industry, leading to the Nullification Crisis. South Carolina, upset by the harshness of a tariff that placed a 62 percent tax on over 90 percent of imported goods, claimed a right to nullify federal laws if it deemed them unconstitutional. The state threatened secession if the federal government attempted to enforce the tariff. The state mobilized 25,000 troops and was on the brink of war with the United States before a compromise tariff was passed in early 1833.
March 29, 1830 - A Report of the Senate decided against legislating a national currency.
July 10, 1832 - President Jackson vetoed the attempt to renew the charter of the Second Bank of the United States.
March 31, 1833 - Harry and Richard White burned the second Treasury Building trying to destroy records proving they committed pension fraud.
June 28, 1834 - An Act of Congress redefined the amount of gold in a dollar, making coins minted prior to July 31, 1834 worth 5.2 percent less than their stated value.
January 30, 1835 - Richard Lawrence, an unemployed painter who suffered from severe mental illness, attempted to kill President Andrew Jackson in front of the Capitol. Lawrence had two pistols misfire at point blank range before Jackson helped subdue his attacker by beating him with his cane. Had Jackson been killed, the Second Bank of the United States may never have closed. Having a central bank would have decreased the severity of the Panic of 1837. In the 1930s, the Smithsonian test fired the two pistols used by Lawrence and both fired on the first attempt. The odds of both guns misfiring during the attempt were estimated to be 1 in 125,000.
March 3, 1835 - An Act of Congress authorized the creation of the Charlotte Mint in North Carolina, the New Orleans Mint in Louisiana and the Dahlonega Mint in Georgia. The Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints closed permanently in 1861 at the outbreak of the Civil War. The New Orleans Mint closed in 1861 as well, but reopened from 1879 to 1909.
June 23, 1836 - An Act of Congress required the Secretary of the Treasury to designate one bank in each state and territory as a “pet bank”. These banks were used for the deposit of government funds and were to take on the former duties of the Second Bank of the United States.
July 4, 1836 - Congress authorized the construction of a fireproof Main Treasury Building. The requirement of fireproofing was due to the fact that the two previous buildings had suffered massive fire damage, most famously in the War of 1812
July 6, 1836 - President Jackson made Robert Mills architect of public buildings in Washington, D.C. The position would later become the Office of the Supervising Architect in the Department of the Treasury.
May 10, 1837 - The Panic of 1837 began when all the banks in New York City suspended specie payments. The panic was the second worst depression in the history of the United States and lasted until 1843.
June 9, 1837 - The Republic of Texas authorized the issue of $500,000 of its own currency.
September 4, 1837 - In response to the Panic of 1837, President Van Buren called for a special session of Congress. Van Buren called for Congress to take the final step of President Jackson’s bank divorce policy by establishing an independent treasury, eliminating any connection to state run banks. The independent treasury was established but was eliminated by the Whigs when Van Buren left office in 1841, only to be re-established by President Polk in 1846.
October 2, 1837 - The payment of the Treasury surplus to the states was suspended by Congress in response to the Panic of 1837.
March 28, 1838 - The first coinage bearing a mint mark, gold half-eagle coins, were produced at the Charlotte Mint.
August 31, 1839 - The Treasury Building on 15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue was ready for partial occupancy. Designed by Robert Mills, the Treasury is one of the finest examples of high Greek Revival architecture in America....
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