In answering your questions (following ?):
1. Interest rate of all the bank products (collectively as bank rate) are a combination of factors. In a simple way to explain, it is a combination of the monetary policies, competition among banks, banks' financial performance, and stock prices.
2. In a simple way to explain bank rate with central bank rate, the higher central bank rate, the higher bank rate (in most of the cases).
4. Central bank rates like Bank of England, ECB (European Central Bank and Fed (United States Federal Reserve) are the major reference rate. Of course, other banks are not required to follow. The most popular is Fed.
5. This is not the rate but the price of the security products for currency. They may be from the central banks or private institutions. Debt markets do not have a uniform rate. Rates are established by products. But usually, the higher central bank rate, the lower debt interest rate.
6. The reason is to control inflation and money supple. The theory is kind of complicated but is simple in application. Imagine this, when the stock market go high, you want to get your money to make some more. Then all the money will drop into the stock market, and there is no money for people to borrow (banks' money are coming from others' deposit). So central bank increase the rate, so that people will put the money back to the bank.
7. See above. Because interest rate drop, bond rate increase. So the demand of bond will increase as well to trigger the increase in price.
8. Imagine this, if USD rate is 10%, all the people will start holding USD for the interest. Then the sudden increase in demand will drive the price up.
2010-01-04 03:45:19 補充：
9. Imagine there are only 2 countries (Taiwan and the United States) in the world (and NTD and USD only). When USD appreciates and NTD depreciates, it means people can use USD to buy more from Taiwan.
2010-01-04 03:45:23 補充：
But Taiwanese need to spend more to buy from the United States. By this, it will create inflation (because of the increase in cost). Then, the economy and investment will be consumed (as people will cut back spending and investment).
2010-01-04 03:45:34 補充：
10. Remember, the classic economic principal is the middle, which mean not more not less. Simply overriding this principal will result the market to adjust itself.
2010-01-04 03:45:46 補充：
Also, the problem of RMB is not the value, but the way to calculate the value. Now, RMB is valued as "he says, she says" (Chinese says how much, then it is how much). So it will drive other countries crazy.
2010-01-04 03:45:51 補充：
So basically what other countries want is the Central Government off its hand for the currency, so that the market can adjust itself. For example, companies can buy RMB to leverage.
2010-01-04 03:46:04 補充：
11. See #8-9 above.
12. Fed rate is the rate the commercial bank borrow money from the Fed. It was used as a reference in determining the bank rate (as a portion of the cost).
2010-01-04 03:46:10 補充：
13. Again, they are not the rate, but the price. The rates depends when the products are issued. In a simple way, The United States Department of Treasury determines the rates of a particular product.