what are the third and forth ways in psychology?
- Anonymous1 decade agoFavorite Answer
The "third force" in psychology
Humanistic psychology emerged as another reaction to behaviorism and psychoanalysis, seen as the two major "forces" in the field.
Maslow and his theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A detailed look at Maslow's life and work
Carl Rogers --
Another Rogers link
Rollo May--an Existentialist
The term "Fourth Way" relies on the notion of the three centers of intelligence, taught since at least the time of Plato and named by many different terms since then. In some traditions they are called the head, heart, and gut; we call them the intelligences of thinking, feeling, and doing or instinct. The three centers of intelligence are the elemental faculties of the human soul.
Ancient approaches to healing the soul, or what in some traditions is called spiritual transformation and in others is called self-realization, rely on developing the gifts of one of the three centers over the other two. However, overdeveloping one side of our nature creates its own problems in realizing our full potential as human beings.
Morality and devotion is the way of the monk and it overdevelops the feeling center. Developing mental power, which relies entirely on the thinking center, is the way of the yogi. Physical discipline is the way of the fakir; it overuses the doing center. These are the first three ways to spiritual transformation.
When you rely on the strength of only one center for spiritual transcendence, you can develop extraordinary gifts but at the cost of exploring the fullness of your own humanity. Further, to learn any of these three ways, one has to remove oneself from the world and practice intense spiritual disciplines with like-minded students under the direction of a master. For these reasons, the way of the monk, yogi, and fakir are more remote than ever as we approach the third millennium.
The Fourth Way is the alternative; it is the way of developing all three centers and their gifts in order to connect with one’s soul or real self. In the Fourth Way, you live an ordinary life in the world, and life is your teacher.
Many people benefit from engaging the support of a spiritual director, a spiritual mentor or guide, or a spiritual community as they pursue this line of transformation because balancing the three centers in the midst of daily life has a deceptively simple sound to it. In actuality, it is the most relentlessly demanding way of all because it requires constant attention simultaneously to one’s inner and outer lives. However, working with yourself in this way causes profound shifts in consciousness, so that you no longer view life in an ordinary way. You come to realize that life has a meaning beyond itself. Thus, life is not about what you do, life is about who you become as you do what you do.