我要找柏拉圖自辯全文

請給我柏拉圖自辯全文,最好有英文發音版

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  • 二哥
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Best Answer

    Apology by Plato (自辯)作者柏拉圖 How you have felt, O men of Athens, at hearing the speeches of my accusers, I cannot tell; but I know that their persuasive words almost made me forget who I was - such was the effect of them; and yet they have hardly spoken a word of truth. But many as their falsehoods were, there was one of them which quite amazed me; - I mean when they told you to be upon your guard, and not to let yourselves be deceived by the force of my eloquence. 雅典的公民們,我不知道當你們聽了控告我的人們的演講後有什麽樣的感覺。但是我知道他們擁有說服力的詞語幾乎讓我也忘記了我自己是誰—這就是他們演講的效果;可是他們卻幾乎沒有說過一句真話。在他們所有的錯誤中有一個使我感到非常的驚奇;那就是他們告訴你們要提高警惕,不要被我的華麗的詞藻所蒙騙。 They ought to have been ashamed of saying this, because they were sure to be detected as soon as I opened my lips and displayed my deficiency; they certainly did appear to be most shameless in saying this, unless by the force of eloquence they mean the force of truth; for then I do indeed admit that I am eloquent. But in how different a way from theirs! Well, as I was saying, they have hardly uttered a word, or not more than a word, of truth; but you shall hear from me the whole truth: not, however, delivered after their manner, in a set oration duly ornamented with words and phrases. 他們應該因此而感到羞愧,似乎在我剛開口說話的時候我言語的欺騙性就被察覺,我話中的缺點也同時被暴露。而這些人似乎真的表現出沒有任何的羞恥感,除非在說華麗的詞藻的力量時他們指事實的力量;否則他們就是承認我確實是在用華麗的詞藻欺騙你們。而與他們不同的是,他們沒有說過一個字或者多於一個字的事實,從我這裏你們將聽到全部的事實。當然不會是他們那樣經過適當修飾的說話方式。

    2009-12-18 17:59:28 補充:

    No indeed! but I shall use the words and arguments which occur to me at the moment; for I am certain that this is right, and that at my time of life I ought not to be appearing before you, O men of Athens, in the character of a juvenile orator - let no one expect this of me. And I must beg of

    2009-12-18 18:04:38 補充:

    you to grant me one favor, which is this - If you hear me using the same words in my defence which I have been in the habit of using, and which most of you may have heard in the agora, and at the tables of the money-changers, or anywhere else, I would ask you not to be surprised at this,

    2009-12-18 18:05:45 補充:

    and not to interrupt me. For I am more than seventy years of age, and this is the first time that I have ever appeared in a court of law, and I am quite a stranger to the ways of the place; and therefore I would have you regard me as if I were really a stranger,

    2009-12-18 18:08:44 補充:

    whom you would excuse if he spoke in his native tongue, and after the fashion of his country; - that I think is not an unfair request. Never mind the manner, which may or may not be good; but think only of the justice of my cause, and give heed to that:

    2009-12-18 18:11:10 補充:

    let the judge decide justly and the speaker speak truly. 不會,當然和他們的方式不同!雅典的公民們,盡管沒有一個人會料想到我會象一個幼稚的演說者一般用此時閃現在腦海中的沒有經過修飾的言論和論點來為自己辯護;但是我知道這才是正確的,在關系我生死攸關的時候我不應該虛偽的出現在你們的眼前。我也必須請求你們當在我的辯論中聽到平常唯有在集市,換錢者的地方,或者其它市井地方才會聽見的話,不要為之而奇怪,也不要打斷我。因為我已經是七十多歲的人了,從前從未到過法庭,對於這裏的規矩還不是很熟悉,

    2009-12-18 18:11:46 補充:

    就象外地來的陌生人一般。所以我希望你們就象是對待陌生人一樣待我,即使我說我自己的土話你們也會原諒。我想這不是不合理的要求。不管我說話的方式如何,請你們只思考我的理由是否正義,然後註意:讓正義公正的決定,讓說話的人說實話。 And first, I have to reply to the older charges and to my first accusers, and then I will go to the later ones. For I have had many accusers, who accused me of old, and

    2009-12-18 18:13:34 補充:

    their false charges have continued during many years; and I am more afraid of them than of Anytus and his associates, who are dangerous, too, in their own way. But far more dangerous are these, who began when you were children, and took possession of your minds with their falsehoods, telling

    2009-12-18 18:14:21 補充:

    of one Socrates, a wise man, who speculated about the heaven above, and searched into the earth beneath, and made the worse appear the better cause. These are the accusers whom I dread; for they are the circulators of this rumor, and their hearers are too apt to fancy that speculators of this

    2009-12-18 18:15:07 補充:

    sort do not believe in the gods. 首先,我要先回復從前非難我的人所列出一些舊的譴責,然後我將回答現在的指控。因為有很多的人譴責過我,他們的一些錯誤的陳舊的譴責也持續了很多年。而我比害怕Anytus和他的朋友們更怕這些譴責我的人。因為他們從別人小的時候就開始向人們灌輸錯誤的觀點,告訴他們蘇格拉底(Socrates)是個博學的人,他思考在天堂上面的事情,尋找地下的東西,他使不好的動機看上去成為好的動機。這些人才是我真正害怕的人,因為他們傳播著謠言,而聽了他們謠言的人很難想象尋找這種知識的人會信仰神。(譯者註:主要說蘇格拉底研究自然科學)

    2009-12-18 18:16:26 補充:

    And they are many, and their charges against me are of ancient date, and they made them in days when you were impressible - in childhood, or perhaps in youth - and the cause when heard went by default, for there was none to answer. And, hardest of all, their names I do not know and cannot tell;

    2009-12-18 18:17:16 補充:

    unless in the chance of a comic poet. But the main body of these slanderers who from envy and malice have wrought upon you - and there are some of them who are convinced themselves, and impart their convictions to others - all these, I say, are most difficult to deal with; for I cannot have them

    2009-12-18 18:18:40 補充:

    up here, and examine them, and therefore I must simply fight with shadows in my own defence, and examine when there is no one who answers. I will ask you then to assume with me, as I was saying, that my opponents are of two kinds - one recent, the other ancient; and I hope that you will see the

    2009-12-18 18:19:23 補充:

    propriety of my answering the latter first, for these accusations you heard long before the others, and much oftener. 還有很多這樣的人,他們的譴責從很早以前就開始了,在你們幼小或者年輕很容易相信別人的話的時候時候。這樣你們聽了這些謠言在沒有辯解的情況下就變成了理所當然的東西了。而更困難的是對於這些造謠的人名字我無從得知。這些人大部分都是因為嫉妒和怨恨,而另外一部分人他們確實相信他們所傳言的東西,然後去

    2009-12-18 18:19:57 補充:

    說服別人----這些人,我說是最難處理的。因為我無法讓他們站出來對質,只好和一些幻影做鬥爭。我只好讓你們和我一樣假設我的對手有兩種人,一個是現在的,一個是從前的;我希望你們能夠理解我要先回答第二種人的必要性,因為這些責難你們早就聽到過,也更經常聽到。 Well, then, I will make my defence, and I will endeavor in the short time which is allowed to do away with this evil opinion of me which you

    2009-12-18 18:20:25 補充:

    have held for such a long time; and I hope I may succeed, if this be well for you and me, and that my words may find favor with you. But I know that to accomplish this is not easy - I quite see the nature of the task. Let the event be as God wills: in obedience to the law I make my defence. 那麽,我將開

    2009-12-18 18:21:08 補充:

    始為自己辯護。我將努力在這所允許的短暫的時間內改變你們長期以來對我不公正的看法。我希望能夠成功,如果這對我們對此都沒有意見,或許我的言語會使你們傾向於我。但是我知道這並不是意見容易辦到的事情:我也看透了這件事的本質,就讓神的意誌來決定吧:在遵循法律的名義下我開始自己的辯護。 I will begin at the beginning, and ask what the accusation is which has given rise to this slander of me, and

    2009-12-18 18:21:45 補充:

    which has encouraged Meletus to proceed against me. What do the slanderers say? They shall be my prosecutors, and I will sum up their words in an affidavit. "Socrates is an evil-doer, and a curious person, who searches into things under the

    2009-12-18 18:22:31 補充:

    earth and in heaven, and he makes the worse appear the better cause; and he teaches the aforesaid doctrines to others." That is the nature of the accusation, and that is what you have seen yourselves in the comedy of Aristophanes; who has introduced a man whom he calls Socrates, going about and

    2009-12-18 18:23:22 補充:

    saying that he can walk in the air, and talking a deal of nonsense concerning matters of which I do not pretend to know either much or little - not that I mean to say anything disparaging of anyone who is a student of natural philosophy. I should be very sorry if Meletus could lay that to my charge

    2009-12-18 18:24:21 補充:

    But the simple truth is, O Athenians, that I have nothing to do with these studies. Very many of those here present are witnesses to the truth of this, and to them I appeal. Speak then, you who have heard me, and tell your neighbors whether any of you have ever known me hold forth in few words

    2009-12-18 18:24:44 補充:

    or in many upon matters of this sort. ... You hear their answer. And from what they say of this you will be able to judge of the truth of the rest. 我將從事情的起源開始說,然後一一列舉出對我造成誹謗的非難,而又正是這些非難使Meletus有勇氣來法院控訴我。這些誹謗的謠言說些什麽呢?假設這寫造謠者是控訴我的人,我以宣誓口供的形式來總結他們的話。“蘇格拉底(Socrates)是個做邪惡的事情的人,一個有好奇心的

    2009-12-18 18:25:51 補充:

    人,他研究地下和天上的東西,他使不好的動機看上去成為好的動機,然後他把前面的學說教與他人。”這就是對我的譴責的本質,你們從Aristophanes的喜劇中也讀到過。這些造謠者無中生有了一個蘇格拉底(Socrates),並告訴世人他可以在空氣中行走,並宣揚一些毫無意義而他自己又毫不掩飾的宣稱自己不知道或知道一點的東西——並不是我有意要說一些話來詆毀研究自然哲學的人。(譯者註:natural philosophy(自然哲學)既當時哲學中研究自然的一部分,自然科學的前身)

    2009-12-18 18:26:13 補充:

    為此我感到非常遺憾,Meletus竟然可以將這些控告帶到法庭上來。但是事實上,我並未從事過這樣的研究。就今天在場的很多人都可以證明這一點,我可以求他們證明。說到這,如果你們(譯者註:前面蘇格拉底說可以為他證明的人們)聽見了,請告訴你的鄰居你們是否曾聽見過我宣言過任何這類的東西…。你們都聽到了答案。從這點你們將能夠判斷其余的事實。

  • 1 decade ago

    柏拉圖為他的老師蘇格拉底所記載的審判記載,維基百科稱之為 《申辯篇》,原文如下列的連結。http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/APOLOGY.HTM

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