DAking asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

受詞補語和同位語如何區分?

I need a help (serving the meal).我需要有人幫忙上菜

甲說:serving the meal是現在分詞?為受詞help的受詞補語?

乙說:serving the meal是help的同位語?

請問以上二說何者正確??受詞補語和同位語又如何區分?

Hold your nose (closed).捏緊鼻子

closed是過去分詞嗎?是否為受詞nose的受詞補語?

Update:

感謝Louis的高見,所以Ineed a help (serving the meal).以及Hold your nose (closed).這兩句的(括弧處)都是受詞補語,只是前者為現在分詞片語,後者為過去分詞,都是當作受詞補語,皆屬形容詞性質,是嗎?

Update 2:

再舉一例Were you parents ok with you being a musician?being a musician也是現在分詞片語,當作受詞補語,屬形容詞性質,是嗎?

3 Answers

Rating
  • Kevin
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    閱讀英文, 最重要的是語意的瞭解, 而文法是用來幫助我們學習, 而非限制我們的思考.

    I need a help serving the meal.

    這句話真正的意思是:

    (在)上菜的時候, 我需要有個人幫忙.

    要表達這樣的語意, 基本的寫法是:

    I need a help when I [am serving]/[serve] the meal.

    而版主所寫的句子, 牽涉到分詞, 屬於較為進階的句法(但是卻是很常見的用法).

    文法不宜套公式死背, 否則永遠不只妨害學習, 對閱讀也無幫助.

    您對照以上這兩句的結構就可以看出:

    [serving the meal]其實是一個副詞片語, 表達"我需要有個人幫忙"是在何種狀況之下發生的.

    它既不是補語, 也非同位語.

    另外, 有人主張這種句子是在[serving]前面省略了介系詞[in]. 這樣也行得通, 但是這時的[serving]就成為動名詞, 當[in]的受詞, [in serving the meal]整個片語同樣是當副詞.

    類似的句子:

    I am busy studying my homework.

    I have problem dealing with customers.

    I encountered great difficulty trying to fit in.

    Hold your nose closed.

    [closed]是過去分詞, 為受詞nose的補語(說明受詞的狀態).

    如果您覺得不易掌握, 不妨把它想成:

    Make your friends happy.

    完全相同的結構.

    Were you parents ok with you being a musician?

    這句話的意思是:

    你的父母同意你當個音樂家嗎?

    同樣地, 基本的寫法是:

    Were you parents ok with the fact/condition that you are a musician?

    這裡的fact/condition表達一個事實或狀態, 而後面由that引導的名詞子句, 正是fact/condition的同位語, 說明其內容.

    而[you being a musician]的地位就等同於

    [the fact/condition that you are a musician]

    所以[you being a musician]是一個帶有主詞的動名詞, 而非形容詞.

    另外, Louis說的沒錯, 可以寫成

    [your being a musician], 這時候是帶所有格的動名詞. 但是並非所有的時候都能改成所有格, 譬如說:

    Are you ok with the Committee of Public Safety increasing their employees' salary?

    用語意為軸心來學習英文才是重點. 其實就版主這幾句話而言, 文法結構不懂沒關係, 重要的是:

    句子的意思是否真的瞭解?

    可以自己正確地應用於寫作嗎?

  • 1 decade ago

    感謝各位大大的幫忙,經多日考證文法書及反覆思索,本人認為Louis(即候選編號 001)的其見解較為正確,我的三個問題也因此迎刃而解,總結如下:

    I need help (serving the meal).

    Hold your nose (closed).

    Were your parents ok with you (being a musician)?

    三個句子的(括弧處)都屬分詞片語的運用,分別用來修飾前面的名詞help(幫手).nose的you,

  • Louis
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    I need a help serving the meal.

    a help = a person that helps

    所以分詞片語serving the meal是受詞補語,屬形容詞性質,跟I saw him coming.的coming關係類似。因為受詞a help是一個人,要去幫忙做飯。

    這個幫忙的人不等於做飯這件事,所以兩者的關係不是同位語。同位語本身是名詞性質,和其同位的對象也是名詞,兩者的意思是相同的,用來補充一個名詞意思的不足。補語則可以是名詞,形容詞,或副詞,是用來補充句子述部意思的不足。

    Hold you nose closed.的closed是分詞,表示被動的意思。鼻子是被主人閉上的,所以用被動的過去分詞。closed在這裡是受詞補語,因為在文法上和述部hold your nose有關,但在意思上和受詞有關。

    2009-12-14 12:54:41 補充:

    是的,兩個受詞補語都屬形容詞性質。補語和時間與空間等有關時,才是副詞性質。如:Put them away.這裡做受詞補語的介系詞away是屬副詞性質,與存在的空間有關。

    2009-12-15 18:58:46 補充:

    Were you parents ok with you being a musician?

    這句應寫成Were your parents ok with your being a musician?即以動名詞片語being a musician當介系詞with的受詞.寫法比較正式.

    如果寫成Were your parents ok with you being a musician?則是分詞片語being a musician當修飾語(屬形容詞性質),修飾代名詞you,此寫法較不正式.

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