〃呆順〃 asked in 科學工程學 · 1 decade ago

工程材料英翻中3Q

Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to penetration (local plastic

deformation) or scratching. One of the oldest and most common hardness tests, based

on measuring the degree of penetration of a material as an indication of hardness, is

the Brinell. Brinell hardness numbers (HB) are a measure of the size of the

penetration

made by a 10-mm steel or tungsten carbide sphere with different loads, depending on

the material under test The indentation size is . measured using a macroscope

containing an ocular scale. Vickers hardness numbers (HV) employ a diamond

pyramid indentor. Otherwise, the two tests are basically similar. Rockwell hardness

testers, using a variety of indentors and loads with corresponding scales, are

direct-reading instruments (l.e., the hardness is read directy from a dial). The hardness

number, for example, 65 HRC, indicates the reading came from the C scale using a

diamond cone indentor and a 150-kg load. It is therefore important in reporting

Rockwell hardness readings to include the scale letter so that person wishing to use

the information knows the type of indentor as well as the size of load used in the

test .

Material such as very thin materials (e.g., coating, foils, plated surfaces),

very brit-tle material (e.g., glass or silicon), and very small parts (e.g.,gears in a

wristwatch) require special care in hardness testing due primarily to their thinness

and/or size. Furthermore, lab-oratory research in materials necessitates hardness

testing on a microscale in determining the differences in hardness over the minute

area of a single grain of metal or between the middle of a crystal and the grain

boundary area. For such purposes a microhardness tester finds application with loads

and indentations that are so small that inden-tation require microscopic viewing with

appropriate scale for accurate measurement.

1 Answer

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  • 師兄
    Lv 6
    1 decade ago
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    硬度是指材料對壓印(局部塑性形變)或刮痕等外力抵抗能力的度量單位。

    布里涅爾硬度测量是其中最古老、最常用的硬度測試,乃依據測量材料的穿透程度,作為標示硬度的參考。

    布里涅爾硬度值(HB) 是用一個10 毫米的的鋼或碳化鎢球在不同的承載下,穿透程度大小的度量標準;乃根據使用可見等級的巨視顯微鏡來測量待測材料凹痕大小。

    維克斯硬度值(HV)則是利用金剛石錐體壓痕測試器來訂定。

    除此以外,這兩項測試基本上是類似的。

    洛克威爾硬度測試儀是使用各種測試器,並搭載相對應刻度的直讀式儀器(即硬度直接從刻度盤讀取)

    例如硬度值65 HRC,表示使用金剛石錐壓痕測試器並承載 150 公斤下所測得的C等級讀數。

    因此發佈包括等級字母的洛克威爾硬度讀值是很重要的,以便讓想使用前述資訊的人知道除了試驗中所用負載大小之外,還知道測試器的類型。

    Material such as very thin materials (e.g., coating, foils, plated surfaces), very brit-tle material (e.g., glass or silicon), and very small parts (e.g.,gears in a wristwatch) require special care in hardness testing due primarily to their thinness and/or size.

    諸如材質很薄的材料(如薄塗層、箔、電鍍表面),很脆弱的材料(如玻璃或矽),和非常小的零件(如手錶裡的齒輪)最主要是因他們的纖薄和/或尺寸大小,使得在硬度的測試過程中需要特別留意。

    Furthermore, lab-oratory research in materials necessitates hardness testing on a microscale in determining the differences in hardness over the minute area of a single grain of metal or between the middle of a crystal and the grain boundary area.

    此外,材料的試驗室研究使得在決定某一單一金屬晶粒的精確區域或介於晶體中央及晶界區之間的硬度差別所做的微尺度硬度測試成為必要。

    For such purposes a microhardness tester finds application with loads and indentations that are so small that inden-tation require microscopic viewing with appropriate scale for accurate measurement.

    對於這類用途的微硬度檢驗器發掘出承載及測試器都很細小,以致於凹痕需要用適當等級刻度的顯微鏡精確測量儀器。

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