Bryan asked in 文學及人文學歷史 · 1 decade ago

History Essay

Why did Britain win the battle of Britain?

plz be between 600 and 100 words

as detail as possible plz

thanks a lot

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  • 1 decade ago
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    The main reason for Britain winning the battle of Britain was that RAF and its pilots.

    This is because the battle of Britain was an air battle. No actual fighting took place on British Soil. The pilots of the RAF had a huge job of protecting themselves and the British population, in the towns and cities. The British pilots were always stationed on the airfields in small scramble huts, these were huts which housed pilots, to keep them close to their aircraft and always ready in case the signal to 'scramble' came. Their task was to stop the bombing raids that came repeatedly, over from France, Holland and Germany. However, the RAF also had to face the bomber escorts, the Messerschmitt ME109. The RAF's Spitfire was an easy match for the ME109 as it was faster and alot more manoeuvrable, but the Hurricane was slower, but could sustain more damage than the spitfire. The Luftwaffe's first escort tactic was to fly high above the bombers, and when the RAF came to attack the bombers, the ME109's would dive down using speed and surprise. The Luftwaffe first set about bombing Britain's shipping ports, to try and starve Britain of essential supplies (a similar technique was used at the end of WW1 against Germany). However, when this did not make much difference, they changed tactics to bomb the air fields. But before they could do so, the Radar stations needed to be destroyed. This part of the plan failed as 3 out of 4 stations were fixed. Ignoring this setback Goering then went on with 'The Attack Of The Eagles' which was to repeatedly bomb the RAF airfields, factories and supply lines. This did not completely ruin the RAF, as the whole operation was controlled by a central Flight Command, which then sent the signal to different sub-stations, which then passed them on to the other air fields. However, these repeated waves of attacks made the Pilots completely exhausted, where they would not be able to fly because of exhaustion.

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    The limited time between waves also meant that some aircraft could not be refuelled or rearmed properly, so the pilots would each have enough ammo for only about 15 seconds of continuous firing.

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    Also, with experienced Pilots being shot down, less experienced Pilots had to be drafted in, the Pilot training course went from 6 months to only 2 weeks.

    The another most important reason is British's strategy for winning the Battle of Britain was the 'Home Advantage'.

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    This is because they made a lot of preparations before the Battle of Britain began, to protect the civilians and their homes. To stop German bombers obliterating the towns and cities, they erected barrage balloons, which stopped the bombers flying too low over civilian areas.

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    Another key preparation was rationing, because they prepared the civilians to live with very little supplies, so that if a major food factories or supply routes became damaged, there was still enough food to go around, plus what had been grown in the gardens.

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    Air raid shelters were a key point in keeping up the morale of the British population. This is because they knew that if there was an air raid, they were in control of protecting themselves, and knew what to do. Regular air raid drills were held in major cities,

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    so that the people were prepared and didn't panic with the real thing. Another strategy to keep the cities and towns safe was the Blackout. This was where at a certain time of the evening; all lights were put out, to make them hard to spot from the air, so harder to bomb.

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    Another key strategy in the triumph of Britain was the use of Radar.

    Radar (Radio direction and range) is the use of Radio waves to detect an object in its range and find the distance, speed and sometimes the type of aircraft.

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    It was first used on a wide-scale during WW2. However, because Radar (RDF) was a new technology, it could only be used over water as if it was over land, any thing that is above ground level, such as a tree or a house) would be picked up on radar.

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    The Radar was a key factor in Britain winning the war as it acted as an early warning system for the RAF, and meant that time, planes and fuel did not need to be wasted on patrols. It also meant that the RAF could find out roughly how many planes there were, their altitude and their direction.

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    There were hundreds of Radar stations around the coast of Britain, but because Radar did not work over land, spotters were used to spot the aircraft, so when the planes had passed the Radar's field of view, it was up to older technology, like binoculars.

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    Another advantage of using Radar was that when it was bombed by the Luftwaffe, 3 out of 4 Radar stations were repaired within a few days.

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