Most of Europe's power and science come from Western Europe ( Britain, France, Germany ). Thus, it can be seen?

that the Africans genes in Souther Europe ( Spain, Portugal, Italy etc. ) and Asian genes in Eastern and Northern Europe ( Russia, Baltics, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Romania, Ukarine, Balkans etc. ) are what's HURTING Europe? North African admixture E1b1b is thought to have expanded from Sub-Saharan... show more that the Africans genes in Souther Europe ( Spain, Portugal, Italy etc. ) and Asian genes in Eastern and Northern Europe ( Russia, Baltics, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Romania, Ukarine, Balkans etc. ) are what's HURTING Europe?

North African admixture
E1b1b is thought to have expanded from Sub-Saharan Africa into North Africa, the Levant and then into Europe. In 2000 Rosser, connected the presence of E1b1b1 (E-M35) clades in southern Europe (the Balkans, Iberia and southern Italy) to a 'northern African influence'. However, the author did not directly connect this with any demographic event or time period.[73] Subsequently, as discussed above, the vast majority of these clades were found to belong to haplogroup E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), whose current frequencies in Europe are due to a demographic expansion originating from within Europe during or after the Neolithic.

Another subclade of E1b1b1 (E-M35) is E1b1b1b (E-M81). This is often considered to be a "Berber marker",[41] or marker of relatively recent northwestern African migrations into Southern Europe. Unlike E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), notable frequencies are limited to specific areas within the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Sicily. In certain Iberian populations, it is more common than E-M78, at an average frequency of 4-5.6%, with frequencies reaching 9% in Galicia, 10% in Western Andalusia and Northwest Castile and 13 % in Cantabria.[74][75] The highest frequency of this clade found so far in Europe has been observed at 40% the Pasiegos from Cantabria.[76] Flores et al. (2004) propose that the absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa consistent with historical exchanges across the Mediterranean during the period of Islamic expansion, namely of Berber populations,[42] although in a study of Portuguese Y-chromosome lineages, Gonçalves et al. (2005) revealed that "The mtDNA and Y data indicate that the Berber presence in that region dates prior to the Moorish expansion in 711 AD... Our data indicate that male Berbers, unlike sub-Saharan immigrants, constituted a long-lasting and continuous community in the country".

In Italy, E1b1b1b is typically more common in parts of Sicily, but it is found also in continental Italy[77] (for example near Lucera, a region where Sicilian Moslems are known to have been settled in the time of Frederick II)[75] and France,[76] possibly due to historic migrations during the Islamic, Roman, and Carthaginian empires, as well as the influence of Sephardic Jews.[78] In all, sequences whose origins lay in northern Africa have been "estimated to contribute to the Sicilian gene pool at a rate of 6%". [79]

Apart from E-M81, other related haplogroups within the E-M35 clade are also seen as showing immigration from Northern Africa. Like E-V13, these are mostly subclades of E1b1b1a (E-M78): E-V12, E-V22, and E-V65 all of which have been found in low frequencies in Europe. Cruciani found that these could represent movements emanating from anytime after 15 kYa.[80]

The Y-DNA data has been supported by mtDNA studies. Haplogroups U6 and M1 are present in Iberian populations in ranges of 0 to 7%.[81][82][83][84] However, the presence of U6 in Iberia cannot be equated with certainty to historic Islamic presence given that it happens to be a characteristic genetic marker of the Saami populations of Northern Scandinavia.[82], it is more frequent in the north of the Iberian Peninsula rather than in the south, and is also attested too in the British Islands, again at their northern and western borders. It may be a trace of a prehistoric neolithic/megalithic expansion along the Atlantic coasts from North Africa, perhaps in conjunction with seaborne trade. A trace of these lineages have even made their way to eastern European populations[84]


[edit] Sub-Saharan African admixture
Sub-Saharan African mtDNA (haplogroups L1, L2 and L3)[85][86] and Y-DNA (haplogroups A, B and E (excluding E1b1b), particularly the ubiquitous Bantu marker E1b1a)[87][88] are present at generally low levels throughout Europe.

Maternal (mtDNA) lineages are the more common and likely represent gene flow from historical events, such as slavery.[89] They've been found in Portugal (6.9%), Spain (2.1%), Slovakia (1%), Italy (0.87%), Finland (0.83%), Bulgaria (0.71%), Bosnia (0.69%), Basques (0.64%), England (0.6%), Greece (0.44%), Switzerland (0.44%), Czech Republic (0.4%), Russia (0.3%), France (0.3%), Poland (0.18%), Germany (0.17%) and Scotland (0.1%).[90]

Paternal (Y-DNA) lineages occur less frequently. They've been found in Portugal (3%), Albanians from Italy (2.9%), France (2.5%), Germany (2%), Sardinia, Italy (1.6%), Calabria, Italy (1.3%), Austria (0.78%), Italy (0.45%), Spain (0.42%) and Greece (0.27%).[91]

Genome-wide autosomal DNA analyses using the STRUCTURE clustering program, which is designed to accurately detect and quantify admixture,[92] show equally negligible levels of sub-Saharan African admixt
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