battery electric vehicle :)))))))))))))))))))))))))?
hey puhlease help me!
what are the:
concepts, theories, laws and principles used in the battery electric vehicle.
- 1 decade agoBest Answer
1. A battery powered vehicle emits no harmful gasses directly. Its polution profile is a function of whatever the "Electric Grid" produces and cleaning up the grid can be done in parallel with introducing all-electric cars. Do a web search for "Smart Grid" or look at reference below.
2. Plug-in hybrids have the option of running off the grid and using no gas. They will serve as an intermediate solution until the zero emission electrics are in place.
3. In today's hybrids, like the Prius, the car may sometimes run on battery power but all that battery power originally came from gasoline. While gas-efficient they are not as good as Plug-in hybrids or all-electric cars.
There's no need to invoke true (scientific) theories for EV (Electric Vehicles); it's just a matter of engineering, buyer psychology etc. You could say, however, that "In Theory" the grid can be improved in time for widespread EV usage. That and similar items are political and economic issues.
DOT (Dept of Transportation) laws pertain to EVs. They'll require that EVs have the same safety features as ICEs (Internal Combustion Engined cars).
There are a small number of little "laws" pertaining to EVs, such as, you can get a white sticker in Calif which lets you use the HOV (High Occupancy Vehicle) lane even when you don't have a car with the requisite number of passengers. The white sticker also lets you cross bridges etc for free.
I guess you mean physical/design principles...
Most of the physical principles are the same for all vehicles:
Aerodynamics: At higher speeds, you'll need less energy if the vehicle is 1. small in cross section and 2. sleek in shape. The drag on a vehicle goes up "as the square of the air speed" (i.e. going 90mph produces 4 times the retarding force as going 45 mph).
Rolling resistance: The width, profile height, and composition of your tires AND THE WEIGHT OF THE CAR can determine a lot of the drag on the vehicle. The more drag, the more power and energy is needed.
Other important issues:
The older battery technologies ("lead-acid batteries") can need replacement every 20,000 miles or so. That's an expensive hit. The newer Lithium batteries are supposed to last well over 100,000 miles but I don't sense a great confidence yet in that number. And they're presently very expensive.
The amount of energy stored in hundreds of pounds of EV batteries rarely exceeds the energy in 2 gallons of gasoline. This means the Range of an EV is always in question (how far can your present car go on 2 gallons?). So aerodynamics, weight, and tire choices become big issues for an EV because every source of drag takes from the small(er) amount of energy stored in the vehicle. Nissan introduced their new EVs yesterday (Aug 1) which will go over 100 miles on a charge. That's better than "50 mpg" on an ICE. Pretty impressive.
The EV designer has to consider the "Peukert Effect" in choosing how to make the battery pack. Lead-acid batteries lose a lot of their energy to this; Lithiums are supposed to be much better. See link.Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_grid http://www.pluginamerica.org/ http://www.nissanusa.com/leaf-electric-car/ http://www.aptera.com/ http://www.39pw.us/car/energyRequirements.html the physics... http://www.39pw.us/car/peukertEffect.html
- Anonymous4 years ago
Hmm.... It appears there are no forecasts for this. It seems that energy futures analysis is being complicated, mostly by transitory geo-political issues, and overly hyped environmental issues. The things we are fairly certain will happen: 1) Petroleum will still exist, and should be near current values. 2) Biofuels will see an increased use, with additional farmland being pressed into service. 3) Despite government efforts to push hydrogen fueled vehicles, the technology has already reached its maximum potential, and will fail for various economic, environmental, and physical reasons. The idea of a hydrogen fueled car will become something of a throw-back, just like personal air vehicles and the robotic kitchen. 4) Additional research, and the trials of time, will show that the hysteria over global warming was largely unjustified. Some policies may be in place to limit CO2, but they will not be as extreme as what currently exists. New oil sources will be opened to drilling, and formerly "depleted" sources will be revisited. 5) With lighter body materials and slightly more advanced batteries, electric (battery) vehicles may see an increase in range towards 200 miles, with a recharge time of a few hours. However, they will still cost about the same, in comparison to combustion vehicles. The problems are that we have no ideas when the public opinions and government policies will change. We know they will change, but the number of electric cars will be influenced by when, which will be influenced by who wins elections and what-not. For example, if Republicans maintain a strong presence in Congress and keep the Presidency, then it is likely that government will have a largely "hands-off" approach. This will leave the industry at the will of market forces, which will favor the continued use of combustion vehicles, well into 2030, although many multi-car families may start buying electric commuting cars. If Democrats gain control of Congress and the Presidency, they will move government to being much more intrusive. Large sums of money will be spent on a hydrogen infrastructure (which will ultimately go unused), and new oil finds will remain untapped, drastically increasing the price of oil. In an attempt to reduce the price, they will drain the strategic reserve, setting the United States up for an energy catastrophe. They will also implement a carbon credit trading scheme which will further increase the cost of energy. The end result is that gasoline will reach roughly $6 per gallon by 2012, and $10 per gallon by 2016. People will rapidly adopt electric cars at that time. Inevitably, people are not stupid, and will recognize the failures of the Democrat Congress and President, and they will be replaced with Republicans who will counter many of the destructive policies. Gasoline will rapidly drop back to $4 - $5 per gallon. However, people will probably continue to use electric cars for their normal commuting, although the number on the road will decline starting from 2018. So you see, there are two scenarios which have drastically different outcomes. In one scenario, market forces cause a gradual adoption, while in the other scenario, government interference will cause a rapid adoption followed by a decline as market forces are reasserted. The thing you really need to focus on though, is that in 2030 the energy sources will be pretty much the same as they are today, but with more potential for biofuels. Battery powered vehicles will also have the same disadvantages as they have today. Similar market forces usually mean a similar outcome.
- 5 years ago
Because of the different methods of charging possible, the emissions produced have been quantified in different ways. Plug-in all-electric and hybrid vehicles also have different consumption characteristics