Anderson asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

英文 - 文法問題

在書上看到以下這個題目:

The Unite States incurred a _____ $412-billion budget deficit in the 2004 fiscal year up to September 30.

A. record-broken

B. recorded-breaking

C. record-breaking

D. recorded-broken Ans: c

書上的解釋我不是很懂,還有就是XXX-XXX 系列的到底有什麼文法規則又應該怎麼使用呢!? 煩請高手相救!!

Update:

明天要考試了~希望能趕快得到答案

Update 2:

To bmo94086:

Thx, I approximately know your explaining, but there is another question in my mind.

Can we use (noun- past participle) or (noun-past tense) to make an adjective like those examples?

3 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    XXX-XXX 系列的到底有什麼文法規則又應該怎麼使用呢!? 煩請高手相救!!

    其實這部分的文法我也是不太熟,但是我知道您的問題中的這個文法是 複合形容詞 的部分。

    其他XXX-XXX的文法還有 複合名詞

    我前一陣子才花了一點工夫去搞懂了一些 hyphen 的問題 和 分數的問題。接著又看到您的題目就自已又查了一下,發現有一個分辨法還滿好用的。

    就是把 compound adjective 和其修飾的名詞 轉回為用關係代名詞的複雜句來分辦

    用實例來說明好了,比較好了解

    複合形容詞的部分

    1N - Ving

    分析-

    Compiling a book is a job which consumes time. 由此可明顯看出

    單數名詞(time)是此及物動詞(consuming)的受詞。

    Compiling a book is a time-consuming job.

    N - p.p

    ex:

    There is a dress which is made by hand.

    可看出 此動詞(make) 是被 名詞 (hand) 所做的,故

    There is a hand-made dress.

    time-consumeXX(不知是ving還是p.p.)

    ex:

    The couple sat at a table which was lit by a candle. =

    The couple sat at a candle-lit table.

    3 adj+Ving (此adj為此型連綴動詞之補語)

    He is a man who looks good. =

    He is a good-looking man.

    4 adj+p.p

    a bycicle which is painted blue. =

    a blue-painted bycicle.

    5 adv + p.p (由Vi+ adv而來)

    the star which is shining brightly. =

    the brightly-shining star

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    依您的問題為例

    a record- (break) budget deficit

    思考

    budget deficit which is breaking record

    = record-breaking budget deficit

    可是另一方面也可能會這樣想也,如下

    budget deficit the record of which is broken =

    record-broken budget deficit @@

    故 還是要多讀 才有效

    文法總是有例外的,不知有多少 文法 敵不過 習慣語。

    如以下這個練習我也覺得很詭伄

    a heart-(break) boy.

    思考

    a boy whose heart is broken.

    = a heart-broken boy

    I take pity on the heart-broken boy.

    2009-07-10 04:28:03 補充:

    6 adv- p.p (由 be p.p + adv 而來)

    a cake which is made carefully =

    a carefully made cake

    7 adj + N-ed

    ex:

    kind-hearted

    one-eyed

    bad-tempered

    8 數量詞 + 單數名詞 (名詞是和時間、價值、長度有關)

    ten-minute

    three-week

    2009-07-10 04:31:47 補充:

    我還可以再補充

    分數的形容詞

    one-fifth

    two-thirds (複合詞雖要求名詞在複合詞中一律用單數,但是只有分數的情況例外,您問我為什麼,我也只能告訴您這一定有原因的,可是我不知道,當然是和習慣有很大的關係,可是我也不能像補習班老師一樣告訴您一句 這是 習慣語 就打混過去。)

    2009-07-10 04:37:32 補充:

    基本上您要知道 習慣語 無敵。只要是現在普遍的用法 一定打得過文法。

    如 record-breaking 在字典中就查的到。 record-broken 就查不到。

    a news which breaks the hearts (of people) 不等於

    a heart-breaking news.

    因為事實上有

    heartbreaking 這個通用的形容詞 (當然我們可以猜測由來可能是因為古早的時候 heart-breaking被用到太普遍、太常出現到 大家都懶得加hyphen,且也能理解意思。)

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  • Louis
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    這句裡的record-breaking是分詞,屬形容詞性質。分詞因為是動詞的衍生字,有動詞的特性,即有邏輯上的主詞和受詞,受副詞的修飾。在這個字前面加上的record是分詞breaking在邏輯上的受詞。兩個字用hyphen連起來就成了新字了(分詞是主角,要放後面)。這是英文造新詞的方式之一。動名詞也有類似的現象,如fruit-picking摘水果。

    [名詞+過去式]是絕對不行的,英文沒有這種組字法。[名詞+過去分詞]也不可能,因為過去分詞表示被動,前面的名詞在文法上不能當這個分詞的主詞,沒有這種組合的方法。

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  • Al
    Lv 6
    1 decade ago

    It is like an ice-making machine. Making is a present participle functioning like an adjective.

    An eye-popping event.

    a dirty, crying child.

    A sable-rattling mob.

    A knife-throwing contest.

    A hotdog-eating contest.

    A record-breaking hot summer day.

    It is noun + p.p. = adjective.

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