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顏顏 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

及物動詞跟介系詞之間的關係??

最近在背單字時發現

為什麼及物動詞要接介系詞呢?

不是只有不及物動詞才要接介系詞再接受詞嗎?

例如在背下列單字時

amaze->be amazed at

absorb->be absorbed in

accustom->be accustomed in

為什麼還要再換成被動呢?

我不懂為什麼這些及物動詞需要再轉換成被動並且接介系詞

才能接受詞???

Update:

請問一下

1.get可在什麼情況下取代被動式中的be?

2.be accustomed to中的to是介系詞所以後面必須接名詞或動名詞嗎?

3.有be excelled in/at的用法嗎?

謝謝

2 Answers

Rating
  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    您的問題可分成二部份和您解釋

    (一) 轉被動的問題

    amaze->另…驚訝,假如是人(主詞)被什麼東西驚訝到 = 對什麼東西感到驚訝,當然只能用成被動 be amazed at

    absorb-> 使....全神貫注;吸引....(注意等),假如是人(主詞)被什麼東西吸引到 = 對什麼東西感到吸引,當然只能用成被動 be absorbed in

    accustom->使...習慣,假如是人(主詞)被什麼東西影響所以變習慣當然只能用成被動 be accustomed to。(assume 後接 to,好像沒看到什麼用in的句子)

    附帶提一點,accustom有一個常見用法是 one accustome oneself to something。

    其他satisfy、interest等的用法亦然。

    這些及物動詞都是 S (主詞) Vt (及物動詞) O (受詞)

    ex: That girl interests me. 那女孩使我感到有興趣 (恕就不修辭,這樣您看的比較懂) 而不是 (我對那女孩有興趣) ,雖然意思都一樣。可是就主詞是哪一個而言就有差。

    以 That girl interests me為例,若要改寫成 我對那女孩有興趣 的話,就只好改成被動 I am interested in that girl. (我對那女孩有興趣)

    您可以用被動來理解。因為那女孩interest me,所以 I am interested.....。

    以上是一種理解方式。另外一種理解方式,就是把過去分詞當做形容詞看。

    interested 感到有興趣 (因為interest 是 使…感興趣,故過去分詞是 感到有興趣)

    satisfied 感到滿意

    (因為satisfy 是 使…感興趣,故過去分詞是 感到有興趣)

    其他類推。

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    基本上以上能理解的話就ok了,接下來看為什麼要接介係詞。

    S (主詞) Vt (及物動詞) O (受詞) 改被動為

    S (原本的O) + be + p.p (原本的Vt的過去分詞) by N (原來的主詞)

    後面當然也可以不接介係詞片語當做補語(補充說明)。

    ex: I was satisfied ( by her service). 若是沒有( by her service)的話,整個句子也是完整的。

    可是您若是問我那為什麼不全部的介係詞都用 by就好,為什麼要 satisfied with、 interested in的話,我也只能告訴您是習慣。

    或許您以可用主動式來理解。

    I interest that girl in my conversation. =

    My conversation interests thath girl =

    That girl is interested in my conversation.

    I interest that girl (in myself) =

    That girl is interested in me.

    The cook satisfies the customers with his best dish. =

    The cook's best dish satisfies the customers. =

    The customers are satisfied with the cook's best.

    He accustom himself to the new environment =

    He is accsutomed (by himself) to the new environment

    accustom 這個動詞和上面的二個動詞不一樣。

    我沒看過有 New environment accustom somebody的用法。

    (所以我就拗不出來了 >.< )

    2009-06-28 04:52:10 補充:

    I was satisfied ( with her service). 才對,satisfied 要接with.

    2009-06-28 04:55:19 補充:

    有些句子可以後面不接介系詞片語當補語,可是有些不接的話別人看不出來您要表達的東西。

    The old man was utterly absorbed. 若是沒有介係詞片語當補語的話,讀者不知道 the old man是被什麼給 absorbed.

    The old man was utterly absorbed in that movie. 這樣就完整了。

    2009-06-28 04:55:23 補充:

    有些句子可以後面不接介系詞片語當補語,可是有些不接的話別人看不出來您要表達的東西。

    The old man was utterly absorbed. 若是沒有介係詞片語當補語的話,讀者不知道 the old man是被什麼給 absorbed.

    The old man was utterly absorbed in that movie. 這樣就完整了。

    2009-06-28 17:19:36 補充:

    be accustomed to (doing) something: to be familiar with something and accept it as normal:

    We were accustomed to working together.

    be accustomed to 後接動名詞

    2009-06-28 17:24:57 補充:

    有be excelled in/at的用法嗎?

    有。查google是有。我手邊的字典倒是查不到。

    2009-06-28 17:29:34 補充:

    get可在什麼情況下取代被動式中的be?

    都可以吧。

    I was hurt,I got hurt.

    I would get shouted

  • rhody
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    您所例舉的動詞再加上ed,pp剛好都可以做形容詞,所以都放在be之後,與其後的介詞構成片語,並非被動式,就算被動式介詞也可用by。

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