- ElisaLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
Gerund vs. Infinitive : 何時使用動名詞 vs. 不定詞
Sometimes, infinitives and gerunds are interchangeable, meaning they mean the same.
Working hard is the key to success.
To work hard is the key to success.
The key to success is to work hard.
To sleep throughout the night is the only thing I want.
Sleeping throughout the night is the only thing I want.
To drive under influence is dangerous.
Driving under influence is dangerous.
To rest is to rejuvenate.
Resting is rejuvenating.
Sometimes, they do not. Sometimes, for certain sentences, you can only use infinitives, but for some, you can only use gerunds.
So, when exactly should we use infinitives and when, gerunds? And what is the difference in meaning if they are not interchangeable?
A. Infinitive and gerund are both correct in the following examples. However, the meaning of the sentences is somewhat different.
1. Infinitives sometimes indicate a future, potential, unreal or abstract event.
2. Infinitives sometimes are used to state a reason; i.e., “in order to”
3. Infinitives sometimes mean “to be able to”
4. Gerunds sometimes state an actual, concrete or fulfilled event as something happens in the present or happened in the past.
5. Only gerunds can be the object of a preposition
I. Gerund and Infinitive as adjective
A4. Indicating a past event
(a1) The boy having been punished finally behaved. (O)
= The boy who had been punished finally behaved.
(a2) Dating in Paris was the most romantic experience she ever had.
A1. Indicating a potential / future event
(b1) The boy who is to be punished will learn to behave. (O)
= The boy to be punished will learn to behave.
II. Gerund and Infinitive as subject
A4. Indicating a fact
(a) Excelling in English requires one's determination.
- continue -
2009-06-16 05:30:15 補充：
A1. Indicating a means, a potential / future event
(b) To excel in English requires one's determination.
= It requires one’s determination in order to excel in English.
2009-06-16 05:30:34 補充：
A3. Indicating “to be able to”
(a) To err is human, to forgive, divine. (Shakespeare)
= It is human (to be able) to err. It is divine (to be able) to forgive.
A4. Indicating a fact
(b) Erring is human, forgiving, divine.
2009-06-16 05:31:07 補充：
III. Gerund and Infinitive as object of a verb
Certain verbs change meaning when followed by infinitives vs. by gerunds.
(1) Stop / Quit:
(a) I stopped to pick up my dry cleaning.
= I stopped in order to pick up my dry cleaning. (A2.)
= I stopped what I was doing and picked up my dry cleaning.
2009-06-16 05:31:36 補充：
=> I stopped what I was doing and went on to do something that had not happened yet. “Pick up my dry cleaning” was an event not yet happened before I stopped.
2009-06-16 05:31:56 補充：
(b) I stopped picking up my dry cleaning.
=> I was picking up my dry cleaning but for some reason, I stopped the event. “Picking up my dry cleaning” was something that happened until I stopped.
2009-06-16 05:32:17 補充：
(a) She forgot to feed the dog.
= She did not feed the dog because she forgot about it.
=> “to feed the dog” never happened.
(b) She forgot feeding the dog.
= She forgot the occasion that she had fed the dog.
=> “feeding the dog” did happen, but she forgot about it.
2009-06-16 05:32:38 補充：
(a) I remembered to buy a car seat on my way home.
=> I remembered that I needed to buy a car seat on my way home, and so I did.
2009-06-16 05:32:55 補充：
(b) I remembered buying a car seat on my way home.
= I remembered having bought a car seat on my way home.
=> I remembered the action of “buying a car seat” when I was driving back home.
2009-06-16 05:33:18 補充：
(a) I regret to tell you that we have selected another candidate for the position.
=> I am sorry to tell you that we have selected another candidate. Used to introduce a bad news.
2009-06-16 05:33:33 補充：
(b) I regret telling him a lie.
= I regret having told him a lie.
=> I wish I had not told him a lie. (I feel bad and I should not have done it, as I see having done it as a mistake).
2009-06-16 05:33:42 補充：
(a) try to = to make an effort or an attempt to do something that maybe hard to accomplish.
=> I will try to finish my homework today.
= I will make an effort to finish .
Please refer to this article I wroteSource(s): Myself. Went abroad at age 11. 32 years of experience speaking and writing English. A project manager in the US since 1992.
- 1 decade ago
二.基本句型:主詞 + 一般動詞 + 受詞 ~
<1>主詞 + 一般動詞 +不定詞 ~(90%以上)
<2>主詞 + enjoy + 動名詞
<3>主詞 + like + 不定詞/動名詞