Anonymous asked in 文學及人文學歷史 · 1 decade ago


What are the 3 assumptions of the enlightenment in Europe history?

how enlightenment transformed to romanticism?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Enlightenment, term applied to the mainstream of thought of 18th-century Europe and America.

    The scientific and intellectual developments of the 17th cent.—the discoveries of Isaac Newton, the rationalism of Rn Descartes, the skepticism of Pierre Bayle, the pantheism of Benedict de Spinoza, and the empiricism of Francis Bacon and John Locke—fostered the belief in natural law and universal order and the confidence in human reason that spread to influence all of 18th-century society.

    The major champions of these concepts were the philosophes, who popularized and promulgated the new ideas for the general reading public. These proponents of the Enlightenment shared certain basic attitudes. With supreme faith in rationality, they sought to discover and to act upon universally valid principles governing humanity, nature, and society. They variously attacked spiritual and scientific authority, dogmatism, intolerance, censorship, and economic and social restraints. the same qualities played a part in bringing the later reaction of romanticism.

    Centered in Paris, the movement gained international character at cosmopolitan salons. Masonic lodges played an important role in disseminating the new ideas throughout Europe, greatly influenced romanticism.

    In England the coffeehouses and the newly flourishing press stimulated social and political criticism, such as the urbane commentary of Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele. Lockean theories of learning by sense perception were further developed by David Hume. The universe created a hospitable climate for the laissez-faire economics of Adam Smith.

    In Germany the universities became centers of the Enlightenment. Moses Mendelssohn set forth a doctrine of rational progress; G. E. Lessing advanced a natural religion of morality; The supreme importance of the individual formed the basis of the ethics of Immanuel Kant. Italian representatives of the age included Cesare Beccaria and Giambattista Vico & vast international influence.

    Source(s): History Book .... due to insufficient space, the essay has been summerized & hope can hlep you
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