HAND REARING AND SOCIALIZING YOUNG HAND-REARED PRIMATES
a result of hand rearing that may seriously interfere withintegration into a conspecific group is the development of abnormal behaviors. if hand-reared infants are provided with a stimulating environment,contact with and enrich-ment from caregivers,and a conspecific playmate,abnormal behaviors can usually be avoided.A decrease in the number of feedings,which results in a loss of body contact time, is implicated in many behavioral aberrations seen in hand-reared ape infants, such as body rocking and digit sucking(Fritz,ebert,and Carland1985).A 6-month-old orangutan was introduced to an adult female who accepted him immediately and even suckled him;however,as he constantly displayed a self-clutching behavior,he was unable to clingand had to be removed after 8 hours(Puleo,Zucker,and Maple1983) The infant requires a secure base from which to explore during the early stages of hand rearing,combined with exposure to peers by the second 6 months of life. Imprinting to a caretaker is a result of isolation from conspecifices, not of too much handling (chimpanzees; Fritz and Fritz 1985). A balance between caregiver contact and peer contact is recommended.