There is no replacement for time! :) Aged cheeses are just that, cheese that it set to rest for weeks, months or even years to develop flavor and "sharpness."
The longer you let a cheese age, the more sharp it becomes.
Depending on the style of cheese, the outside may be coated by wax, or brined in a flavoring solution, or coated with a solution containing good, healthy bacteria that help develop the cheese's flavor.
Some cheese are left to age in the open air, some in damp and cold conditions. Roquefort cheeses (among others) are famous because they are aged in a cave.
Regular commercial Cheddar cheese is usually just wrapped in air tight plastic and put into a refrigerated warehouse to age before it is cut into retail size portions.
All cheeses will mold if left exposed to the air - they are the perfect food for many airborne bacteria. Most of which do not penetrate the cheese, just cut off the moldy and/or dry parts and eat the rest. It is perfectly fine.
Oh - and the vinegar taste you are picking up is just part of aging, some cheese types develop that flavor, some do not - but they do not use vinegar in commercial cheese making.