Joseph
Lv 5
Joseph asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

請問 -ism 與 -activism 的區別

大師、專家、先進們好,想請問一個英文問題。

在近期的 Popular Science 中看到介紹中國駭客的一篇文章。對以下一段中有兩個字不是很懂:

Jack Linchuan Qiu, a communications professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong who spent the 2001 hacker war logged into mainland forums, agrees. "Chinese hackerism is not the American 'hacktivism' that wants social change," he says. "It's actually very close to the state. The Chinese distinction between the private and public domains is very small." Chinese entrepreneurs returning from working in Silicon Valley, Qiu says, sometimes comply with government requests to provide filtering technology to China's Internet police. Homegrown hackers might just as easily be recruited to write viruses or software for the People's Liberation Army.

我曉得這兩字應該是近來的自創字(是吧?)。我想提出的發問是:

我把它認定為 -ism 與 -activism 的使用。-ism 應該是對的,-activism 有沒有錯呢?

區別上,我以下的揣測是對的嗎?

hackerism - a culture of hacking or hacker's lifehacktivism - a belief/a set of ideals about the purpose of hacking

中文上如何區分這兩個字呢?(This is really a bonus question. I understand that there could be some degree of fidelity loss, but any attempt is greatly appreciated.)

在此先誠心地謝謝各位的寶貴的回答與討論。Your valuable participation will certainly help me improve my English. ^_^

Update:

先謝謝 daisukemoi 大師所提供資料。我尚未詳細閱讀、思考過。但是發現我第二個發問有點含意模糊,對不起。

我主要想問的是,字面上的區別,並非 hacker culture 的解說。

對「激進主義」,因為我的認同並非如此,所以我也不大確定。請讓我先想一想。

您的寶貴意見的確值得讓我琢磨。讓我先忙完私事,再來用我的空腦袋好好想想 ^_^

Update 2:

與定義區別上,這樣對嗎?

-ism (hackerism) - doctrine/belief/movement of being a hacker

-activism (hacktivism) - achieving goals/supporting issues through hacking

對「激進主義」我還是不認同。主要是把以行動達成目的說成激進主義有點過頭的感覺。說不出來,我中文不是很好。:)

Update 3:

討論移於意見欄中。

2 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
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    > 請問 -ism 與 -activism 的區別

    > 1.我把它認定為 -ism 與 -activism 的使用。-ism 應該是對的,-activism 有沒有錯呢?

    -ism 是對的﹐-activism 也沒有錯

    hackerism = hacker + ism = 駭客主義

    hacktivism = hack + activism = 駭客激進主義

    > 2.區別上,我以下的揣測是對的嗎?

    > •hackerism - a culture of hacking or hacker's life

    > •hacktivism - a belief/a set of ideals about the purpose of hacking

    hackerism is

    - A belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good

    - A belief that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible

    - An ideology where new solutions are published and openly available to benefit the whole community

    hacktivism is

    - The nonviolent use of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools in pursuit of political ends

    - The practice of promoting a political agenda by hacking, especially by defacing or disabling websites

    - The act of “black hat” hacking that is not specifically motivated by malice, curiosity or criminal intent, but for political purposes.

    - A relatively new term for politically-motivated hacking

    - The fusion of hacking and activism; a policy of hacking or creating technology to achieve a political or social goal.

    > 3.中文上如何區分這兩個字呢?(This is really a bonus question. I understand that there could be some degree of fidelity loss, but any attempt is greatly appreciated.)

    在下會這樣譯

    hackerism = 駭客主義

    hacktivism = 駭客激進主義

    ***

    延伸閱讀

    Chinese Hackerism in Retrospect: The Legend of a New Revolutionary Army

    http://ncsi-net.ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/cyberspace/soci...

    A Brief History of Computer Hackerism

    http://linux.omnipotent.net/article.php?article_id...

    On the Jargons of Hacker

    http://eapesp.dee.nuu.edu.tw/trivia/hack/hack.php

    Activism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activism

    資訊安全入門手冊

    http://web.ydu.edu.tw/~ydjames/teacher_download/ne...

    Malware City IT Dictionary - H

    http://www.malwarecity.com/site/Main/listDictionar...

    2009-04-28 10:28:19 補充:

    > 與定義區別上,這樣對嗎?

    > -ism (hackerism) - doctrine/belief/movement of being a hacker

    hackerism 帶有理想抱負造福社會

    > -activism (hacktivism) - achieving goals/supporting issues through hacking

    hacktivism 則利用合法或非法駭客技術入侵系統以達到一些政治目的

    2009-04-28 10:28:37 補充:

    > 對「激進主義」我還是不認同。主要是把以行動達成目的說成激進主義有點過頭的感覺。說不出來,我中文不是很好。:)

    對的

    activism 除了負面的「激進主義」外﹐也有正面的「行動主義」意思

    http://tw.dictionary.yahoo.com/search?ei=UTF-8&p=a...

    駭客行動主義的文章

    http://blog.ithome.com.tw/index.php?op=ViewArticle...

    2009-04-30 09:50:23 補充:

    hackerism 表示 一些hacker持有以下信念

    "The belief that information-sharing is a powerful positive good, and that it is an ethical duty of hackers to share their expertise by writing free software and facilitating access to information and to computing resources wherever possible"

    在下的解讀是帶有理想抱負造福社會的意思

    2009-04-30 15:22:38 補充:

    Hacktivism有駭客激進主義及駭客行動主義的不同中文字眼

    不知大家有何見解呢

    在下覺得激進主義不一定是負面﹐行動主義不一定是正面

    類似的還有原教旨主義/社會主義/共產主義等等﹐理想總是崇高的

    正如民主主義也有其弊病

    Source(s): Wiki, NCSI Building cyberspace, A Brief History of Computer Hackerism, On the Jargons of Hacker, 資訊安全入門手冊, Malware City IT Dictionary
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  • Joseph
    Lv 5
    1 decade ago

    對不起,遲遲沒有回應。忙中偷閒把您的建議想了一下:

    hackerism 帶有理想抱負造福社會

    hacktivism 則利用合法或非法駭客技術入侵系統以達到一些政治目的

    還是不能認同您的解釋。原因:

    1. hackerism 的中性化。單看此字,無法看出是否「造福社會」。如同許多理念,不一定是造福的意思,也無法看出對社會影響。

    不過,非常謝謝您參與討論。與您的切磋之間,的確讓我幾乎確定了問題的答案。

    也歡迎您再提供一些觀點。請限制於這兩個字的字面討論 :) By profession, I do understand what 'hacking' is.

    2009-04-30 14:14:22 補充:

    請不要相信您所看到的字面上的解釋。對於 hacking 的信念,有多種解釋。有好的像您所說崇高的理念,也有壞的如個人的 misconception or mischief。所以單獨解釋為「抱負造福社會」並不正確。

    所以我才建議您不要去下好壞的評論。就 hacker 單純翻為駭客,無需多解釋好壞。畢竟,好壞是觀點不同而定。碰到有爭議性的行為,硬歸為正面或負面的定義是有偏差。

    並且,正負的定義評論反而模糊問題焦點:在此處 -ism 與 -activism 的使用對此字所產生的區別。

    2009-04-30 14:14:27 補充:

    您提供的資料相當的棒,於此,非常謝謝您的細心搜尋。美中不足的是多數還是陷於解釋此文化、行為,並非字面上的解釋。

    雖是如此,您的認真是值得肯定的。我也十分感謝您願意參與討論。

    2009-05-02 13:29:25 補充:

    嗯,這我也很想知道,畢竟我中文不好。 ^_^

    像您說對「激進」的正式解釋就不敢說。只是感覺上覺得很像偏向負面性。是否可看成 extremist?(如同新聞上常聽到的 "The extremist faction of XXX...")

    總覺得 activism 是有目的的行動派主義。如 environmental activist,以行動來捍衛理想、達成目的。但又沒有 environmental extremist 那麼偏激。

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