英文paper翻譯 不要翻譯軟體出來的

Introduction Arthroplasty of a rheumatoid wrist joint is still a challenging problem and a final solution has not yet been found [1]. Although the constrained Swanson silicone rubber implant may give good relief of pain [2,3], this type of prosthesis is usually no longer recommended because of complications... show more Introduction
Arthroplasty of a rheumatoid wrist joint is still a
challenging problem and a final solution has not yet
been found [1]. Although the constrained Swanson
silicone rubber implant may give good relief of pain
[2,3], this type of prosthesis is usually no longer
recommended because of complications resulting
from breakage of the implants, wear, subsidence
and increasing stiffness of the joint. Various types of
semi-constrained or non-constrained mechanisms
have been developed instead, which are anchored
to bone either with or without cement [1,411].
Although good functional results have been
achieved, problems have been reported in terms of
imbalance and loosening, sometimes that require
revision [1]. Evolving concepts have been aiming
at an imitation of normal wrist joint anatomy
with as little bone resection as possible [6,811].
Rahimtoola and Hubach [10] have recently presented
a total modular wrist prosthesis that could be
uncemented or not, and which is available in an
unconstrained or constrained version. Although pain
and range of movement improved, in several cases
there were signs of possible loosening [11]. A wrist
prosthesis including a distal radioulnar (DRU) joint
component has been described by Lundborg and
Bra°nemark [12] and Rahimtoola and Hubach [10],
and a separate radioulnar DRU joint mechanism has
been described by Scheker and Von Schroeder [13].
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