? asked in 社會及文化語言 · 1 decade ago

幫我翻譯中文→英文!!!!10點!!!!!****唔該!!!

神宗對一直贊成恢復肉刑:

隨着社會的發展,人們的社會活動範圍大大擴展,安土重遷的觀念已不像以往濃厚。因此流刑的懲處力減弱。先王於是用加役流取代,又未足懲也,之後又有刺配,未足以待,故又有遠近之別,蓋先王教化明,習俗成,所以肉刑是可以實行的。加上愚頑之民對於折杖法不過是累十天後康復,則已忘記了痛楚,無愧恥之心。

王安石則認為:

實行肉刑無害處,但必須認真斟酌。如禁軍逃走未曾對軍隊的結構造成影響,又並非處於征戰時期,則可以刖足代替處斬。

編刺刪定官曾布的《肉刑議》裡說:

宋代的刑罰,輕者過輕,重者過重,而肉刑的復行,如剕刑(斷足)﹑宮刑(閹割男子生殖器、破壞女子生殖機能)﹑劓刑(割去受刑人的鼻子),代替死刑之輕者,作為中間缺少的連接。這樣許多死刑犯就可以因此而獲生。

呂公弼反對復行肉刑:

認為肉刑已廢止一千多年,一旦恢復,民心一駭而動,不利於社會安定。而且雖然古代有肉刑之法,在堯舜的遠古時期亦沒有實行。

樞密院事呂公著認為:

只因前代禮教未備而刑獄繁,不能恢復肉刑的。

雖然最高統治者宋神宗本人也極力主張實行肉刑,肉刑最終也未能在宋代恢復,因為「以此法久廢難以猝行」。自漢代廢肉刑以來,至宋代已一千多年,社會的發展難以再倒回去。所以這場有關肉刑的討論並未有結果。

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太祖建隆二年閏三月,從揚州回師開封時,僧道們紛紛出迎,唯獨輝文等僧與婦人酣飲傳舍,太祖大怒,命令開封府集眾杖殺輝文。

真宗大中祥符三年九月,入內高品江守恩因建制市青苗﹑私役軍士﹑擅董丁夫及苔及苔捶役夫致死,下詔杖殺。

棄市:貪污受賄

如:太祖乾德三年十月,太子中舍王沼因權知西縣時受賄賂枉法殺人而被棄市。

開寶八年六月,宋州觀察判官崔約﹑錄事參軍馬休等因受賄不法而被棄市。

磔刑:如:建隆三年八月,負責蔡河務綱官王訓等在所運送的軍糧內摻進糠土雜屑,為人所告,太祖便下詔令開封府逮捕王訓等「磔刑市」。

族刑:謀反﹑大逆

如:太祖乾德四年九月,虎捷指揮使孫進﹑龍衛指揮使吳環等二十七人結黨叛亂,均判死刑刑,並「夷進族」,即族刑。

腰斬:不見於宋代正式法典

如:太平興國五年,溫州犯劉翁因養貓鬼咒詛殺人而被腰斬

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從刑是甚麼?

從刑是主刑(折杖法及死刑)外的附加刑罰,可以與主刑同時運用或單獨運用,在宋朝期間廣泛運用於重罪犯。

一.配隸刑

→ 分刺面配(刺配)及不刺面配(加役流)

→ 集刺、杖、流于一身,指在犯人臉上刺字/符號,外加杖脊後流配充軍

二. 編管

→ 將犯人強制遣送遠地,编入當地户籍,並將其置於監管狀態下,約束其行動

三. 羈管

→ 類似編管,但等級較輕

四. 居住﹑安置

→ 運用卞責降官員

→ 居住刑輕於安置,安置輕於編管,這些都是不同等級的處罰而已

五. 移鄉

→ 將犯人強制遞徙別州鄉居住

六. 令眾

→ 公開犯人的罪狀,把犯人拿去遊街示罪

七. 鎖閉

→ 將犯人置於固定的場所,使其失去自由,通常施行於宗室成員

八. 沒官為奴

→ 重大罪犯的家屬常沒為官府奴婢,終身服役

九. 籍沒財產

→ 將犯人家資財產充公

十. 度為僧尼﹑女冠

→ 剃為僧尼﹑女冠,允許祖父母及守孝的親戚婦人與所生兒女,側近處相見,不得經宿,每月不得超

過一次

十一. 舉人永不得應舉

→ 讀書的士子被剝奪應舉的資格

十二. 僧道還俗

→ 強制僧人﹑道士落為凡人

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3 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    God Zong Dui has approved restores the corporal punishment:

    Along with society's development, people's social activity scope big expansion, lives contentedly in one place with little inclination to move elsewhere the idea has not looked like was formerly thick. Therefore the punishment of exile punishment strength is weaken. The late king therefore uses to add the service class substitution, also the foot has not punished, afterward also has tattoos the face and exiles to the frontier, the foot has not waited, therefore also has the difference far and near, covers the late king to enlighten clearly, the custom becomes, therefore the corporal punishment is may implement. In addition the ignorant and stubborn people fold the stick law is tired ten days later are restored to health, then has forgotten the pain, has no qualms heart of the shame.

    Wang Anshi thought:

    implements the corporal punishment not to have the harm, but must consider earnestly. If the imperial guard runs away has not had the influence to army's structure, is also in by no means goes on an expedition the time, then may cut off feet replaces sentences to beheading.

    arranged thorn editing official Zeng Bu "Corporal punishment To discuss" in said:

    the Song Dynasty's penalty, light is excessively light, heavy is overweight, but corporal punishment's duplicate line, like 剕 the punishment (breaks foot) the castration (to castrate male reproductive organ, to destroy female to reproduce function) to cut off the nose the punishment (to cut off receiving punishment person's nose), replaces light death penalty, among the achievement lacks connection. Such many facing the death penalty, thoses may therefore attain live.

    2009-04-08 22:28:05 補充:

    Lu Gongbi opposes the duplicate good corporal punishment:

    thought that the corporal punishment abolished for more than 1000 years, once restores, as soon as the popular sentiment startles moves, does not favor the social stability.

    2009-04-08 22:28:28 補充:

    Moreover although the ancient times had law of the corporal punishment, has also not implemented in Yao and Shun's ancient times time.

    2009-04-08 22:29:08 補充:

    privy council matter Lu Gongzhuo thought:because before

    , a generation of Confucianism has not only prepared, but punishment prison numerous, cannot restore the corporal punishment.although

    2009-04-08 22:30:10 補充:

    highest ruler Song Shenzong also the urge implements the corporal punishment, the corporal punishment has not been able to restore finally in Song Dynasty, because “by this law long waste with difficulty sudden line”.

    2009-04-08 22:30:11 補充:

    highest ruler Song Shenzong also the urge implements the corporal punishment, the corporal punishment has not been able to restore finally in Song Dynasty, because “by this law long waste with difficulty sudden line”.

    2009-04-08 22:30:29 補充:

    Since the Han Dynasty waste corporal punishment, to the Song Dynasty more than 1000 years, society's development went back but actually again with difficulty. Therefore this related corporal punishment's discussion has not had the result.

    2009-04-08 22:32:19 補充:

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    1 decade ago

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  • 1 decade ago

    Too the Zu sets up Long for two years, Run in Marchary, the monk ways pay to face in succession while returning to teacher Kaifeng from the Yang state, only Hui text etc. monk and women Han drink to spread a shed, too Zu great anger, orderany mansion in Kaifeng to gather many Zhangs to kill a Hui text.Leave city:The corruption takes bribe

    As:Too the Zu is dry and virtuous for three October, years, in the prince shed Wang2 Zhao3 because the power knows west county is abused law by hush money homicide and is left city.Open a treasure for eight June, years, Song state observation judge Cui invite, record a matter three destriers rest etc. because of take bribe illegal and is left city.

    Zhe Xing:As:Set up Long three August, years, be responsible for Cai4 He2 work key link officer, Wang2 Xun4, wait for at the Chan inside the provisions for army delivered into the bran soil miscellaneous scraps and behave sue, too the Zu then issues imperial edict to arrest Wang2 Xun4 mansion in Kaifeng etc."the Zhe Xing City".Clan Xing:Attempt rebellion, greatly negative

    As:Too the Zu is dry and virtuous four September, years, the tiger Jie conductor makes Sun Jin4 and dragon Wei the conductor make the etc.27 people of Wu2 Huan2 knot a party insurrection and all judge death penalty Xing, and"Yi enter clan", namely clan Xing.

    Cut in half:Be disappeared to Song generation formal code of laws

    As:The peace makes a country strong for five years and Wen Zhou's making Liu2 Weng is cut in half because of keeping the cat ghost damning homicide

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