What is defensive modernization? Compare the defensive modernization programs of Porfirian Mexico?

I need help with this question from my civ class. I've done research, but really can't find anything. Help would be awesome.

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    Díaz believed that by being president, he was granting Mexico the greatest gift of political stability. Even as his government became increasingly autocratic (especially after 1884) , political stability, he believed, was the key to economic growth.[2] From the moment Díaz became president, the Mexican economy was a problem. In hopes of building up Mexico as fast as possible, Díaz welcomed foreign investors with open arms.[3] Díaz immediately encouraged foreign investment because the country was in serious debt and had minimal savings left over from the previous administration.[1] Because Díaz made the conditions for investors so favorable, local businesses and individual workers greatly suffered.

    When it came to the economy, Díaz largely stuck to familiar liberal principles.[2] For example, he decided that a previous 1850s ban on corporate land holding should also be enacted for Indian villages. This freed land for private exploitation and for purchase by his loyal political followers and friends.[2] The crucial source of new money, however, came from outside Mexico’s borders.[2] The growing influence of U.S. businessmen over the Mexican economy was a constant dilemma for Díaz.

    Díaz's two top advisors, Matias Romero and Jose Y. Limantour, were held responsible for the sudden influx of international investments.[1] With the development of nation-wide infrastructure, Mexico began to experience a great deal of new wealth. The problem, however, was not the growth in revenues, but the way it was distributed. The money was not used to improve the lives of the people of Mexico. Rather, the profits ended up the hands of a wealthy few or went overseas.[1] Despite its labor surplus, the wage rates remained very low and the majority of the Mexican population faced devastating poverty.[4] As Crow states, "Mexicans had no money and the doors were thrown open to those who had."[3] Also, economic progress varied drastically from region to region. The north was defined by mining and ranching while the central valley became the home of large-scale farms for wheat and grain.[5]

    His modernization program was also at odds with the owners of the large plantations (haciendas) that had spread across much of Mexico. These rich plantation owners wanted to maintain their existing feudal system (peonage), and were reluctant to transform into the capitalist economy Díaz was pushing towards because it meant competing in a global market and contending with the monetary influence of businessmen from the United States. Though he wished to modernize the country, Díaz by no means opposed the existence of the haciendas, and in fact supported them strongly throughout his rule. He appointed sympathetic governors and allowed the plantation owners to proceed with a slow campaign of encroachment, using the Ley Lerdo, onto collectively owned village land, and enforced such seizure through his well-equipped rural police (rurales).

    While Díaz claimed to have realized the positivist governance of "order and progress," perfection was far from reality.[5] Before the celebrations began for the independence centennial of 1910, the economy that once seemed to have a bright future for Mexico looked out upon a dismal horizon. Due to shrinking national revenues, the Mexican government was forced to borrow money from abroad.[1] As wages on the home front were steadily decreasing, strikes in the streets were common and often difficult to cover up by the administration. With the extremely apparent dept of the farmers, Mexico's economic troubles were undeniable.[1] Despite the fact that the concept of economic progress was dwindling, Díaz maintained the appearance of prosperity.[6] The magnificent Mexico City became a showcase for the country's apparent progress.

    Because Díaz had created such an effective centralized government, he was able to concentrate decision-making and maintain control over the economic instability.[5]

  • brina
    Lv 4
    3 years ago

    Porfirian Mexico

  • 4 years ago

    defensive modernization compare defensive modernization programs porfirian mexico

  • 4 years ago

    I get defensive when someone else is waiting to get defensive with me. When they are sitting there waiting for each word that comes out of my mouth so that they can twist it and get mad at me. I hate it!!

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