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    In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics. Charges are associated with conserved quantum numbers.


    Electric current is the flow of electric charge.[1] The electric charge may be either electrons or ions.The SI unit of electric current intensity is the ampere. Electric current is measured using an ammeter.


    The electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. It has no known substructure and is believed to be a point particle.[2] Electrons participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Like its rest mass and elementary charge, the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin) of an electron has a constant value. In the collision of an electron and a positron, the electron's antiparticle, both are annihilated. An electron–positron pair can be produced from gamma ray photons with sufficient energy


    An ion is an atom or molecule which has lost or gained one or more electrons, giving it a positive or negative electrical charge. According to the Model of Bohr this will be from or in the outer shield 'n'.

    A negatively charged ion, which has more electrons than it has protons, is known as an anion (ἀνά ana: Greek 'up') (pronounced /ˈnaɪən/; an-eye-on). Conversely, a positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, is known as a cation (κατά kata: Greek 'down') (pronounced /ˈktaɪən/; cat-eye-on).

    An ion consisting of a single atom is called a monatomic ion, but if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a polyatomic ion. Polyatomic ions containing oxygen, such as carbonate and sulfate, are called oxyanions.

    Ions are denoted in the same way as electrically neutral atoms and molecules except for the presence of a superscript indicating the sign of the net electric charge and the number of electrons lost or gained, if more than one. For example: H+ and SO42−.

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