A .223 is a high velocity .22 cal bullet. A 44 mag can push a 340 grain bullet out 1500 plus fps. In a proper bullet, you will kill a bear with this. Try that with a ,223, and you will get mauled.
Don't get lost in energy, it is only a number to consider when comparing the same caliber, different speeds.
A perfect example is this. A 30-06 is the most popular rifle caliber in the US for hunting. A hot 180 grain bullet traveling over 3100 fps will put out 3840 plus pounds energy.
A 45-70 loaded with a 500 grain bullet gets out of my Marlin at about 1625fps for 2931 lbs of energy. Based on this, the slow, and heavy 45-70 is a whimp compared to the 30-06. NOT TRUE!!!
This 45-70 load will drive through a 1500 pound bull moose from front to back. It will kill Elephant and Cape Buffalo. It can shoot through the entire length of a Big Mature Grizzly Bear. All these animals are too big and tough even for the strongest of bonded bullets out of a 30-06.
A .44 mag will also kill Moose, Bear, as well as Buffalo when shot from a lever.
If you want bone crushing penitration, heavy bullets with a big meplat are where it is at. Heavy bullets generate momentum that drive deep.
Hornady Ballistic Charts
Buffalo Bore ballistic charts
.44 mag and 45-70 hunter