There is absolutely nothing wrong with keeping your cat indoors all the time. Don't let anyone make you believe it's cruel just because you live in a room. I once lived in a 400 square foot house with two indoor cats and they were fine. You sound quite responsible and well read for wanting to keep a kitty inside. He will definitely live much longer being indoors-only. Cats do not miss out on any important life experience by being kept inside.
To answer your questions:
1. If the cat never knows what it's like to go outside, then the chances of him trying to escape are a bit lower. That's not to say he won't be curious. You will have to keep an eye on him for the first few months you have him to see how he reacts to windows and doors. I'd suggest not leaving windows open more than just a small crack when you're not at home. Bored kitties are quite intelligent and good at figuring things out on their own, so he'd be safer if he cant fit through the opening while you're gone. To get him to not race for the door, again, will not be so hard if he doesn't know what outside is like. He may, in fact, be scared of it when you open the door, and run and hide. All you have to do is get into the habit of just opening the door a small bit, and waiting to see if the cat comes running or not (they respond to the sound of the door opening). If he does come, then shoo him away by sticking your foot through the door and waving at him, make some sort of command or noise to let him know you don't want him near the door. Then enter as quickly as possible and shut the door. Make sure everyone that comes in your room does this. The cat will quickly learn that the door is off limits.
Putting clear packaging tape is great for keeping them from clawing stuff. It doesn't have to be double sided. Cats HATE how plastic feels on their claws, and will not scratch things with tape on it. They sell plastic double sided stuff in the pet store for the same purpose, but it costs more money and clear box tape works just as good and is cheaper. It is especially effective on furniture such as your couch or mattress, that cats may normally try to scratch on. Spray bottles of water are good for teaching cats to not do unwanted behaviors, such as jumping up on a certain piece of furniture, or clawing things. Cats do not respond to physical punishment the way dogs do, and will only learn to not trust a person that strikes or hits them in any way, so a water pistol or bottle is an excellent tool for teaching them "No". They learn to associate the bad behavior with getting wet, and will stop.
2. The only health hazards really would be the same things found in any house. Make sure your cat can't get under the sink or anywhere else you keep any toxic chemicals, and if you keep houseplants, then make sure they are not poisonous to cats. You can easily find lists of poisonous plants if you search with Google. The ASPCA website has an excellent list.
As far as food, in general I'd say that canned food makes their poo stink worse than dry food. That is not to say that you should never feed them wet food. They should have some occasionally at least, or they tend to get constipated. And good quality cat food found in pet stores should be fine. Get in the habit of reading content labels on cat food bags and you will learn alot.
3. Cats ideally like to eat all the time, like a dog, in my experience. If you leave food out all the time, they will eat all day long. Of course, this often results in a fatter cat, but it is also easier on you if you have trouble remembering to feed them at certain times, or if you have a tendency to be in a hurry at feeding time, such as the morning. A vet will probably say the best thing to do is feed them a fixed amount twice a day, like you suggested. Really the preference is up to you, there's not one that's better than the other, in my opinion.
4. Inappropriate urination is almost always caused by a medical problem, not bad behavior or "acting out". Cats are naturally clean by nature, and if they begin peeing in weird spots it means there is something wrong, usually a urinary tract infection (UTI). In cats, this is caused by ingredients (magnesium and ash) in poor-quality cat foods, that cats don't really need. The body responds by building up uric acid crystals in their urine, which cause irritation to happen, which is painful to the cat. The cat learns to associate pain with the litter box, and stops peeing there. If left untreated, UTI can get bad very quickly, causing the system to become blocked, which will kill the cat. To prevent UTI's, again, get in the habit of reading the ingredients in cat foods, and dont feed anything that contains magnesium and ash. UTI is more common in male cats than females.
The only other reason cats pee in weird spots is if they don't like their litter box or type of litter for some reason. In that case, you will have to experiment with different kinds to see what he or she likes. Cats can be very fussy about their potty. To keep down smells, I'd suggest trying a "natural" type of litter. I use one called Feline Pine, which is made from pine sawdust, and is naturally good at eliminating odors. There is also one called "Swheat Wheat" which is made from wheat, and again, naturally good at repelling odors. Don't ever use clumping clay litter with a new kitten. If they get it on their feet and lick it off, and it gets inside them, it can swell up in their system and kill them. If your kitty ever does have accidents, plain white vinegar is excellent at killing the potty smell for good so he doesn't go there again in the future.
5. Of course, your cat should have plenty of toys. It is especially helpful if you don't leave them all out all the time, and rotate toys occasionally, putting some away and getting others out. This is because they get bored with the same toys all the time and will stop playing with them. But hide it for a few months and it takes on a brand new excitement for them. My cats like toys made from real animal parts - real feathers and real fur. Not all cats are that fussy, and you can try different kinds to see what he likes. You should also get a toy that is interactive, so he can enjoy playing with you, too, not just by himself. I'd highly suggest getting a feather wand, and a laser pointer. Both will stimulate and appease his instinct for hunting, and allow him to have fun with you as well. There is no better cat toy on earth than a laser pointer. If he's not happy and wants more attention, believe me, he will let you know. He will sit at your feet and meow, pester you with a favorite toy, or get right in the way of anything you are doing that seems more important to you than him, such as laying down right on top of your newspaper while you are trying to read. When your cat does this, don't get annoyed. Just see it as his way of trying to interact with you, and take a break to play with him more.
Sorry this is so long, but you asked alot of good questions, and I tend to write alot.
Good luck with your new cat. I hope this helps =^.^=
owning cats most my life