The First Crusade was proclaimed by Pope Clement II in 1095, with the stated purpose of driving the Seljuk Turks out of Anatolia, where they were threatening the Eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople. In this the Crusaders were largely unsuccessful, as theTurks were much better organized and led. Very soon, Crusaders changed their goals from preserving the Empire to conquering Jerusalem from Muslim control. They were partially successful in this, setting up several Crusader States - European-controlled enclaves in modern day Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Some remained in European control for nearly 200 years, but they were eventually reabsorbed by Turks and Arabs. During the First Crusade a sideline of the action was the wholesale persecution of Jews in occupied areas. Some were forced to convert to Christianity, some were killed, and many were robbed of whatever possessions they had. Many consider this the first large antisemitic pogrom of the Christian era.