HOW did Pharaoh Narmer (or Menes) unify Upper and Lower Egypt? (Ancient Egypt)?
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Did he achieve it through military force? Did he achieve it through a more peaceful means? Or neither. HOW exactly did Pharaoh Narmer (or Menes) unify Upper and Lower Egypt. ...show more
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Narmer unified Egypt through military means, as shown on the Narmer Palette. The pharoah is depicted wearing the crowns of Upper Egypt on one side and Lower Egypt on the other, indicating that he was the first king over both kingdoms.
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Unification is usually attributed to Pharaoh Horus Narmar also known as Menes,this may have been the first unification treaty but it was not to be the last, as Egypt required the reunification process several times during the 1st to 3rd dynasties of The Old Kingdom.
The 20 years of civil war in Egypt at the end of the 2nd dynasty would have definitely swept aside any treaties that had been made approx 250 years earlier.
The actual process of unification was achieved by a series of proposals, discussions, negotiations. Personal lobbying and calling upon old allegiances and favors of the leaders of individual nomes or provinces that made up Upper and Lower Egypt was very important, just as it is in politics of the modern era..
The term nome is a Greek word used to describe the individual provinces that made up Egypt.
There were 20 in lower Egypt and 22 in Upper Egypt, unification was not intended to end to these mini governments whose ultimate allegiance was to the to pharaoh, but each had their own favored gods and goddesses and could set taxation rate in specific goods and services and introduce laws that were in addition to those that were acknowledged to be the law of the country.
The southern king Narmer (perhaps the legendary Menes) wins a victory over the northern king which is immortalized by Narmer's Palette. The famous Narmer Palette, discovered in 1898 in Hierakonpolis, shows Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms. Traditionally, Menes is credited with that unification, and he is listed as being the first pharaoh in Manetho's list of kings, so this find has caused some controversy.
Some Egyptologists hold that Menes and Narmer are in fact the same person; some hold that Menes is the same person with Horus Akha (aka. Hor-Aha) and he inherited an already-unified Egypt from Narmer; others hold that Narmer began the process of unification but either did not succeed or succeeded only partially, leaving it to Menes to complete.
Another equally plausible theory is that Narmer was an immediate successor to the king who did manage to unify Egypt (perhaps the King Scorpion whose name was found on a macehead also discovered in Hierakonpolis), and adopted symbols of unification that had already been in use perhaps for a generation. It should be noted that while there is extensive physical evidence of there being a pharaoh named Narmer, so far there is no evidence other than Manetho's list and from legend for a pharaoh called Menes. The King Lists recently found in Den's and Qa'a's tombs both list Narmer as the founder of their dynasty.
The ancient Egyptians chose to begin their official history with a king named "Meni" (or Menes in Greek) who they believed had united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. The transition to a unified state actually happened more gradually than the ancient Egyptian writers would have us believe, and there is no contemporary record of Menes. Scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have actually been the pharaoh Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette in a symbolic act of unification. The third century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of pharaohs following Menes into 30 dynasties, a system still in use today.
In the Early Dynastic Period about 3150 BC, the first pharaohs solidified their control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which they could control the labor force and agriculture of the fertile delta region as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant. The increasing power and wealth of the pharaohs during the early dynastic period was reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified pharaoh after his death. The strong institution of kingship developed by the pharaohs served to legitimize state control over the land, labor, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian civilization
Source(s):Ancient Egypt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern nation of Egypt. The civilization began around 3150 BC with the political...
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