Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (2)
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight. They are located on either side of the orange external propellant tank. Each SRB produces 1.8 times more liftoff thrust than one F-1 engine – the most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever flown – 5 of which powered the Saturn V "moon rocket's" first stage. The SRBs are the largest solid-fuel rocket motors ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions.
Each SRB weighs approximately 1,300,000 pounds (590,000 kg) at launch. The two SRBs constitute about 60% of the total lift-off mass. The propellant for each solid rocket motor weighs approximately 1,100,000 pounds (499,000 kg). The inert weight of each SRB is approximately 200,000 pounds (91,000 kg).
Space Shuttle -External Tank
A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) is the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contains the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer. During lift-off and ascent it supplies the fuel and oxidizer under pressure to the three space shuttle main engines (SSME) in the orbiter. The ET is jettisoned just over 10 seconds after MECO (Main Engine Cut Off), where the SSMEs are shut down, and re-enters the Earth's atmosphere.
The tank contains Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2). At liftoff the LOX mass (at 22 psig): 1,387,457 lb (629,340 kg). The LH2 mass (at 29.3 psig): 234,265 lb (106,261 kg).
The Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS)
This is a system of reaction jets on board the Space Shuttle orbiters. It is designed to provide thrust for orbit insertion, orbit transfer, orbit circularization, rendezvous and de-orbit burns. It consists of two fuel storage pods (the characteristic 'bumps' beneath the tail of the orbiter) and two main engines just outboard of the top SSME.
The OMS uses hypergolic fuel for operation. The brew of choice is monomethyl hydrazine fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as an oxidizer. These two substances react in engine thrust reaction chambers before being ejected through the main engine bells and thrust vectoring nozzles at the rear of the orbiter. The fuel used is monomethylhydrazine (MMH), which is oxidized with nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4). The Shuttle has enough fuel for about 1000 ft/s (approx. 300 m/s) of delta-V using the OMS.
Auxiliary power unit
APUs are even more critical for space shuttle flight operations. Unlike aircraft APUs, they provide hydraulic pressure, not electrical power. The space shuttle has three redundant APUs, powered by hydrazine fuel. They only function during powered ascent and during re-entry and landing. During powered ascent, the APUs provide hydraulic power for gimballing of shuttle's engines and control surfaces. During landing, they power the control surfaces and brakes. Landing can be accomplished with only one APU working. On STS-9, one of Columbia's APUs caught fire, but the flight still landed successfully.