Yes, large steam engines are more efficient than internal combustions engines. Largest application is in power plants.
Coal power plants are exclusively steam. Oil and natural gas also fire steam plants. Steam plants take a long time to start up and get running, thus, best suited for base power plants, not peaking plants. They are also large and heavy, thus, used some in ships where fuel efficiency helps operating costs. Convenience of oil fired diesel engines has replaced steam in many mobile applications, as diesel efficiency is not too much worse than steam.
Also, military does not like steam, as boilers contain lots of very hot steam. One hole from a bullet, and you have a big mess.