- 技安妹Lv 61 decade agoFavorite Answer
Automotive aerodynamics is the study of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. The main concerns of automotive aerodynamics are reducing drag (though drag by wide wheels is dominating most cars), reducing wind noise, minimising noise emission and preventing undesired lift forces at high speeds. For some classes of racing vehicles, it may also be important to produce desirable downwards aerodynamic forces to improve traction and thus cornering abilities.
An aerodynamic automobile will integrate the wheel arcs and lights in its shape to have a small surface. It will be streamlined, for example it does not have sharp edges crossing the wind stream above the windshield and will feature a sort of tail called a fastback or Kammback or liftback. Note that the Aptera 2e, the Loremo, and the Volkswagen 1-litre car try to reduce the area of their back. It will have a flat and smooth floor to support the Venturi effect and produce desirable downwards aerodynamic forces. The air that rams into the engine bay, is used for cooling, combustion, and for passengers, then reaccelerated by a nozzle and then ejected under the floor. For mid and rear engines air is decelerated and pressurized in a diffuser, loses some pressure as it passes the engine bay, and fills the slipstream. These cars need a seal between the low pressure region around the wheels and the high pressure around the gearbox. They all have a closed engine bay floor. The suspension is either streamlined (Aptera) or retracted. Door handles, the antenna, and roof rails can have a streamlined shape. The side mirror can only have a round fairing as a nose. Air flow through the wheel-bays is said to increase drag (German source) though race cars need it for brake cooling and a lot of cars emit the air from the radiator into the wheel bay.
2008-12-31 10:43:52 補充：
Automotive aerodynamics differs from aircraft aerodynamics in several ways. First, the characteristic shape of a road vehicle is bluff , compared to an aircraft. Second, the vehicle operates very close to the ground, rather than in free air. Third, the operating speeds are lower.
2008-12-31 10:44:28 補充：
Fourth, the ground vehicle has fewer degrees of freedom than the aircraft, and its motion is less affected by aerodynamic forces.
Automotive aerodynamics is studied using both computer modelling and wind tunnel testing.
2008-12-31 10:44:53 補充：
For the most accurate results from a wind tunnel test, the tunnel is sometimes equipped with a rolling road. This is a movable floor for the working section, which moves at the same speed as the air flow.
2008-12-31 10:45:09 補充：
This prevents a boundary layer forming on the floor of the working section and affecting the results