Microeconomists argue that in a fully competitive industry, price equals marginal cost equals minimum average cost equals breakeven point (including a competitive return on capital), and that a company’s maximum-profit equilibrium is where extra costs are balanced by extra revenue, in other words, where the marginal cost curve intersects the marginal revenue curve. In reality, many companies have little idea what their optimal price or production volume is, while most microeconomists are happier with their models than actually talking to production managers, marketers or cost accountants!
微型經濟學家提出在非常競爭的產業, 售價等於邊際成本,也等於最低平均成本, 也相當於損益平衡點 (note:這段表示利潤非常薄,幾乎無利可圖) - 包刮非常微薄的投資報酬率.
而這類公司最大獲利平衡點,在於額外費用等於業外收入.換句話說,就是"邊際成本... 交叉之點. 在實質面,很多公司毫無概念他們的最優價格,或生產數量應該是多少.