asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

這是我的河川學翻譯 怎麼翻都不太順 請幫幫我 謝謝

With a choice between high risk and high reward , versus low risk and low reward .Results demonstrate a neatly graded foraging response among instars in regard to changing risk and reward .

A similar experiment was conducted with minnows in an artificial stream where the presence or absence of predators , cover , and food were manipulated ( fraser and cerri , 1982 ; cerri and fraser , 1983 ) . Adult creek chub were the predators , while juvenile chub and blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus were the prey . Avoid-ance of risk was clearly demonstrated : prey avoided patches with predators , and were more likely to take risks during the day and when structure was present .Offered a choice among four alternatives ( food versus no food cross-classified with risk versus no risk ) , juvenile R.atratulus showed no indication of balancing risk against reward . Instead they appeared to choose a patch based on food , and reduce their use of a patch proportionate to predation risk and independently of reward .

Juvenile coho salmon , Oncorhynchus kisutch , feed on stream drift by making short excursions from a holding position . Using house flies as prey and a model of a rainbow trout as threat , Dill and Fraser ( 1984 ) asked whether risk reduced foraging , and whether the reduction was proportionate to risk . Exposure to the model trout reduced reaction and attack distances and shortened attack time compared with young salmon foraging in the absence of threat ( Figure 7.10 ) . The investigators then varied the frequency with which they presented the model before the salmon , thereby varying the level of risk , and found that attack distance decreased proportionately ( Figure 7.11 ) .

Moreover , responsiveness to the model was reduced by higher hunger levels and the presence of a competitor . This behavioral flexibility evidently allows young coho salmon to adjust their foraging in a quite complex fashion .

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  • 1 decade ago
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    隨著之間作出選擇高風險和高回報,低風險與低回報。結果表明整齊分級覓食反響齡方面的變化風險和回報。

    類似的實驗,進行魚的人工流的存在或缺乏天敵,封面,糧食被操縱(弗雷澤和cerri , 1982年; cerri和弗雷澤, 1983年) 。成人河鰱魚是食肉動物,而少年鰱魚和blacknose鯪魚Rhinichthys atratulus的獵物。迴避風險是清楚地表明:獵物避免與天敵補丁,並更有可能採取的風險在白天和結構時,本。提供了一個選擇的四個備選方案(糧食與食物沒有交叉分類與風險與無風險) ,少年R.atratulus顯示,沒有跡象顯示風險的平衡對報酬。相反,他們似乎選擇一個補丁的基礎上的食物,並減少其使用補丁相稱捕食風險和獨立的獎勵。

    少年銀鮭,銀大馬哈魚,飼料就流漂移,使短期旅行從一個控股地位。用房子作為捕食蒼蠅和模型,虹鱒魚作為威脅,蒔蘿和弗雷澤( 1984年)詢問是否覓食的風險降低,以及是否減少相稱的風險。曝光模型鱒魚減少的反應,攻擊距離和時間縮短,攻擊比較年輕的鮭魚覓食在沒有威脅(圖7.10 ) 。研究人員然後不同的頻率與他們提出的模型前,鮭魚,從而不同的風險程度,發現攻擊距離比例下降(圖7.11 ) 。

    此外,響應模型減少了更高的飢餓水平和存在的競爭對手。這種行為顯然允許靈活性年輕銀鮭調整其覓食在相當複雜的方式.

  • 1 decade ago

    無魚蝦也好

    如果專業知識夠 看著翻譯軟體翻出的鬼東西應該也可以拼出正確的回答

  • 修齊
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    這大概只有機器人聽得懂...^^

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