緋寒 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

英文報告急需翻譯,這是有關社區監測文章的一小段

特別問第一段The benefits of CBM as citizen science are many and include, but are not limited to:是什麼意思,若其他文章能順便翻譯更好

The benefits of CBM as citizen science are many and include, but are not limited to: (1) enhancement of community capacity and social capital;(2) development and improvement of social networks; (3) more proactive public participation in policy, planning, and management initiatives; (4) developing community based definitions of sustainability and desired future conditions; (5) increased understanding of local contexts by external “experts”; (6) more inclusive decision-making processes that lead to better decisions; (7) proactive identification of environmental change for continuous improvement and active adaptive management; (8) more and better data for long-term research and monitoring; (9) development of better working relationships between the public and land managers; (10) the development of a sense of empowerment and ownership over local conditions; and (11) the advancement of theory and practice of sustainable development (EMAN 2002; Merrifield 1989; Pollock et al. 2003). CBM should be seen as a valuable addition to be developed along side of more technical and expert-driven environmental monitoring programs. The promulgation of CBM initiatives must not be used as an abrogation of government/agency responsibility (Sharpe et al. 2000).

Update:

CBM指的是社區參予之監測

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  • 1 decade ago
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    The benefits of CBM as citizen science are many and include, but are not limited to: (1) enhancement of community capacity and social capital;(2) development and improvement of social networks; (3) more proactive public participation in policy, planning, and management initiatives; (4) developing community based definitions of sustainability and desired future conditions; (5) increased understanding of local contexts by external “experts”; (6) more inclusive decision-making processes that lead to better decisions; (7) proactive identification of environmental change for continuous improvement and active adaptive management; (8) more and better data for long-term research and monitoring; (9) development of better working relationships between the public and land managers; (10) the development of a sense of empowerment and ownership over local conditions; and (11) the advancement of theory and practice of sustainable development (EMAN 2002; Merrifield 1989; Pollock et al. 2003). CBM should be seen as a valuable addition to be developed along side of more technical and expert-driven environmental monitoring programs. The promulgation of CBM initiatives must not be used as an abrogation of government/agency responsibility (Sharpe et al. 2000).

    The benefits of CBM as citizen science are many and include, but are not limited to:社區參予之監測視為居民科學有許多好處, 包含但不是局限(也就是說還有其他好處的意思)

    社區參予之監測視為居民科學有許多好處, 包含但不是局限:(1) 社區容量與社會資源的強化;(2) 社會網絡的拓展和改善;(3)政策,計畫以及管理創始力上更活耀的公共參與;(4)拓展以社區為基礎的持續性的以及需求的未來條件;(5)經由外部的”專家”,增加對當地條件的瞭解;(6)更廣範圍的決策程序以產生更佳的決策;(7) 環境改變的積極鑑定為了持續改善以及積極合適的管理;(8)更多以及更好的資料為了長期的研究與監控;(9)在人民與土地管理人間更好工作關係的擴展;(10)在當地的條件上授權與所有權觀念的推廣;(11)持續性發展的理論與實踐的促進(EMAN 2002; Merrifield 1989; Pollock et al. 2003這些人在這些年代發表過以上的論點). 社區參予之監測必須視為是有價值的加入以順著更多技術和專家推動的環境偵測計畫來推廣. 社區參予之監測的倡議頒佈必須不是用來當做政府法令的廢除或是代理義務(Sharpe et al. 2000 . Sharpe等人於2000年發表)

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  • 7 years ago

    seo軟體確實是有一定效果的,能夠辦到很多人力很難或者很費時間的活

    像這種全自動的seo軟體:http://www.softwowo.com/

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  • 1 decade ago

    感謝兩位的幫了一個大忙!

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  • 1 decade ago

    那個研究生翻得好爛

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  • 1 decade ago

    作為公民科學的 "社區為基礎之監測行動"( BCM- Community Based Monitoring)其利甚多, 包括且又不僅限於以下幾點:

    1)增強社區的能力和社會資本;

    2)發展和改善社會網路;

    3)公眾更積極在政策,計畫和管理主動性方面之參與;

    4)以社區為基礎對持續成長及未來願景作出明確定義;

    5)增加外來專家對本地事務的瞭解;

    6)更多包容性的決策過程使得決策更加妥當;

    7)因持續改善及活躍變通的管理而導致之環境改變獲得積極認同;

    8)為長期的研究和監測提供更多更良好的訊息;

    9)發展出公眾和當地管理者之間更良好的工作關係;

    10)發展出跨越本地條件的授權意識及擁有者意識, 以及:

    11)推進可持續發展之理論及實踐.

    (生態監測和評估網路2002,默里夫尤 1989, 普洛克等人 2003 著述)

    BCM行動應被視為對更為有技術和專業成分的環境監測計畫的一種增值, 而此行動的創議不應被用做對政府或其代理之責任的減免。

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