Are we being manipulated into buying brands? 我們是被操縱去購買品牌的嗎？
BRANDS are accused of all sorts of evils, from threatening our health and destroying our environment to corrupting our children. 品牌是被告的各種醜惡現象，威脅我們的健康和破壞我們的環境，腐蝕我們的孩子。
Brands are so powerful, it is said ,that they force us to look alike, eat alike and be alike.品牌是如此強大，據說，他們迫使我們看起來一樣，吃的一樣並且相像。
This grim picture has been made popular by many recent anti-branding books.
The argument has been most forcefully stated in Naomi Klein’s book NO Logo:
Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies.針對這些品牌惡霸
Its argument runs something like this. 它的論點環繞像這樣的事情
In the new global economy, brands represent a huge portion of the value of a company and, increasingly, its biggest source of profits.
So companies are switching from showcasing product features to marketing aspirations and the dream of a more exciting lifestyle.因此，公司正從展示產品的特點轉換成行銷的期望和夢想更激勵人心...
Historically, building a brand was rather simple. 從歷史上看，建立一個品牌是相當簡單。
A logo was a straightforward guarantee of quality and consistency , or it was a signal that a product was something new. 標識是一個品質的保證和一致性，或者這是一個代表的產品是新的東西。
For that, consumers were prepared to pay a premium. 為此，消費者願意支付額外費用。
Building a brand nationally required little more than an occasional advertisement on a handful of television or radio stations showing how the product tasted better or drove faster. 建立一個品牌只需國家少數電視偶爾的廣告或廣播電台展示如何更好地或更快嚐到產品。
There was little regulation. 沒有什麼規定。
It was easy for brands such as Coca-Cola, Kodak and Marlboro to become hugely powerful. 這是很容易成為非常強大的品牌如可口可樂，柯達，萬寶路這些品牌。
Because shopping was still a local business and competition limited, a successful brand could maintain its lead and high prices for years.
A strong brand acted as an effective barrier to entry for competing product.