- 關G琳Lv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
The concept of“freedom”is developed from the concept of“rationality”in Kantianism，which includes the two key spiritual elements in the traditional West philosophy, that is，the spirit of“nous”and the spirit of“logos”.
- 小笨笨Lv 51 decade ago
Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher born in Königsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, Russia). The term Kantianism or Kantian is still often used to describe contemporary positions in philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics.
Kant's ethics are deontological, revolving entirely around duty rather than emotional feelings or end goals. All actions are performed in accordance with some underlying maxim or principle; it is this that the moral worth of an action is judged according to. Kant's ethics are founded on his view of rationality as the ultimate good and his belief that all people are fundamentally rational beings. This led to the most important part of Kant's ethics, the formulation of the Categorical Imperative, which acts as a test for whether a maxim is good or bad.
Simply put, the test is that one must universalize the maxim (imagine that all people acted in this way) and then see if it would still be possible to perform the maxim in the world. For instance, holding the maxim kill anyone who annoys you and applying it universally would result in a world which would soon be devoid of people and without anyone left to kill. Thus holding this maxim is irrational as it ends up being impossible to hold it.
Universalizing a maxim leads to it being valid, or to one of two contradictions — a contradiction in conception (where the maxim, when universalized, is no longer a viable means to the end) or a contradiction in will (where the will of a person contradicts what the universalization of the maxim implies). The first type leads to a "perfect duty", and the second leads to an "imperfect duty."
The Formulation Rule of Kantianism:
1. Act only from moral rules that you can at the same time obey will be the universal moral rule.
2. Act so that you always treat others as an end, and never as a means to an end only.Source(s): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kantianism