咩咩羊 asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

翻譯高手請進 !! 英翻中 20點!! 謝絕翻譯軟體!!!!

The Functional Form—The functional form of organization can be thought of as a special-purpose machine designed to produce a limited line of goods or services in large volume and at low cost. The logic of the functional form is centrally coordinated specialization. Departments, each staffed with specialized experts in numbers established by a central budget, repeatedly make their contribution to the firm's overall effort in accordance with a common schedule. To be successful, the functional form's specialized skills and equipment must be fully and predictably operated. Firms in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century frequently integrated forward, creating new wholesaling and retailing channels to assure that their output could be efficiently distributed and sold. Similarly, these firms often integrated backward to assure themselves the steady flow of materials and components essential to efficient operation. Today's functional paragons, such as Wal-Mart, are masters at obtaining these kinds of efficiencies, but typically they are not as vertically integrated.

Although vertical integration assures functionally structured firms input and output predictability, it does not come without costs. The further backward and forward a firm integrates, the greater the costs of coordination and the larger the number of specialized assets demanding full utilization. Ultimately, it becomes difficult to determine whether any particular asset along the value chain is making a positive contribution to overall profitability. In fact, the recent trend toward disaggregation (e.g., buying rather than making components, outsourcing sales or distribution) reflects the recognition by many firms that coordination costs and asset underutilization are offsetting the benefits of predictability and hierarchical control.

謝絕翻譯軟體!!謝謝~

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  • Jason
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago
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    功能性架構--組織的功能性架構可以認為是被設計來產生大量而低成本的專屬貨品或服務

    線。在邏輯上,功能性架構是具有中央協調的專門性。每一個由中央預算中配有一定數量

    專家的部門,不斷地按照共同的規劃為公司整體努力的成果而作出他們的貢獻。為了成功

    ,功能性架構的專門技術與設備必須充分而可被預期地運作。十九世紀末與二十世紀初的

    公司經常向前(下)整合,創造新的批發與零售通路來確保他們的輸出貨品可以被有效地分

    配與銷售。同樣地,這些公司也經常向後(上)整合來確保他們自己在有效運作上所必須的

    穩定的物資與零件的來源。今天這種功能上的模範,如同 Wal-Mart,即使都是能得到這

    種效率的大師,但是他們都不是像這樣典型的垂直整合。

    雖然垂直整合確保這些功能架構形式公司的進出都是可預期的,但是這些並不是不需要

    成本。公司越進一步的往前、後整合,需要使用越多的成本與越大數量的特定財物。

    最後,變成很難判定任何價值鏈上的任何特定物資是否對整體的收益有產生實質的貢獻。

    實際上,最近傾向瓦解的趨勢(例如:買而不是製造零件,委外販售或銷售)反映出許多

    公司認知到溝通協調的成本與物資利用抵銷了可預期與架構控制的好處。

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