What is Vapour Pressure and Saturation pressure?

I keep hearing these terms everday (I'm in college), but for the life of me I still cannot quite grasp what it means. Can someone provide me an explanation? I wouldn't mind a dumbed down explaination at all. The simpler the better.

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Vapor pressure (also known as equilibrium vapor pressure or saturation vapor pressure), is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. All liquids and solids have a tendency to evaporate to a gaseous form, and all gases have a tendency to condense back into their original form (either liquid or solid). At any given temperature, for a particular substance, there is a pressure at which the gas of that substance is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid or solid forms. This is the vapor pressure of that substance at that temperature. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of molecules and atoms to escape from a liquid or a solid. A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The Kelvin equation shows how equilibrium vapor pressure depends on droplet size.

    An example is water vapor when air is saturated with water vapor. It is the vapor pressure usually found over a flat surface of liquid water, [1] and is a dynamic equilibrium where the rate of condensation of water equals the rate of evaporation of water. In general, the higher the temperature, the higher the vapor pressure. When air is at the saturation vapor pressure, it is said to be at the dew point. Thus, at saturation vapor pressure, air has a relative humidity of 100% and condensation occurs with any increase of water vapor content or a reduction in temperature.

    The international standard for saturation vapor pressure over water is given by the Goff-Gratch equation. Another more recent equation for water is the Arden Buck Equation.

    Assuming absolutely clean air, if water droplets have a high curvature, which is the case when they are smaller, they require relative humidities in excess of 100% (known as supersaturation) to be at an equilibrium vapor pressure. As droplets approach approximately 20 micrometers, they can survive at 100% relative humidity. As the droplet grows larger by collision and coalescence, it can survive longer because its curvature becomes smoother as the droplet grows. Of course, in actual practice in the Earth's atmosphere, the ability of water to condense into droplets is generally affected by the presence of hygroscopic dust particles (Cloud Condensation nuclei). The relative humidity required for droplets to actually form can be significantly below the real saturation vapor pressure due to the solute effect. Finally, if the temperature becomes low enough in a cloud, as it does in nimbostratus and cumulonimbus clouds, microscopic ice crystals may also serve as condensation nuclei for the cloud in a process known as the Bergeron process.

    The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The atmospheric pressure boiling point of a liquid (also known as the normal boiling point) is the temperature where the vapor pressure equals the ambient atmospheric pressure. With any incremental increase in that temperature, the vapor pressure becomes sufficient to overcome atmospheric pressure and lift the liquid to form bubbles inside the bulk of the substance. Bubble formation deeper in the liquid requires a higher pressure, and therefore higher temperature, because the fluid pressure increases above the atmospheric pressure as the depth increases.

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  • woodby
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    Saturated Vapour Pressure

  • aliaga
    Lv 4
    4 years ago

    Saturation Pressure

  • 6 years ago

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    RE:

    What is Vapour Pressure and Saturation pressure?

    I keep hearing these terms everday (I'm in college), but for the life of me I still cannot quite grasp what it means. Can someone provide me an explanation? I wouldn't mind a dumbed down explaination at all. The simpler the better.

    Source(s): vapour pressure saturation pressure: https://shortly.im/0nsaQ
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