# BIOlogy 的問題

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你想要詳細的回答,好,我來幫你!

hydrolyse:

Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into hydrogen and hydroxide ions which may go on to participate in further reactions.[1][2] It is the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers, especially those made by step-growth polymerization. Such polymer degradation is usually catalysed by either acid or alkali attack, often increasing with their strength or pH.

Hydrolysis is distinct from hydration, where hydrated molecule does not "lyse" (break into two new compounds). It should not be confused with hydrogenolysis, a reaction of hydrogen.

Metal ions are Lewis acids, and in aqueous solution they form aqua ions, of the general formula M(H2O)nm+. [4] [5] The aqua ions are hydrolyzed, to a greater or lesser extent. The first hydrolysis step is given generically as

M(H2O)nm+ + H2O ⇌ M(H2O)n-1(OH)(m-1)+ + H3O+

Thus the aqua ion is behaving as an acid in terms of Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory. This is easily explained by considering the inductive effect of the positively charged metal ion, which weakens the O-H bond of an attached water molecule, making the liberation of a proton relatively easy.Under physiological conditions (i.e. in dilute aqueous solution), a hydrolytic cleavage reaction, where the concentration of a metabolic precursor is low (on the order of 10-3 to 10-6 molar), is essentially thermodynamically irreversible. To give an example:

A + H2O → X + Y

Assuming that x is the final concentration of products, and that C is the initial concentration of A, and W = [H2O] = 55.5 molar, then x can be calculated with the equation:

p.s.There are different meaning in different subjects!

2008-10-30 16:37:12 補充：

let Kd×W = k:

then

For a value of C = 0.001 molar, and k = 1 molar, x/C > 0.999. Less than 0.1% of the original reactant would be present once the reaction is complete.

2008-10-30 16:37:20 補充：

M(H2O)nm+ + H2O ⇌ M(H2O)n-1(OH)(m-1)+ + H3O+

2008-10-30 16:37:36 補充：

example, aqueous solutions of Cr(VI) contain CrO42-.

Cr(H2O)6+ → CrO42- + 2 H2O + 8 H+

Note that reactions such as

2 CrO42- + H2O ⇌ Cr2O72- + 2 OH-

are formally hydrolysis reactions as water molecules are split up yielding hydroxide ions. Such reactions are common among polyoxometalates.

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reactant = 反應劑

反應劑

反應原料 - 用於反應原料和C的大宗氧氣、氮氣、二氧化碳、一氧化碳、氫氣。

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hydrolyse = 水解

水解

水解作用是指礦物遇水後進行物質交換，改變了雙方的結構，形成了新的礦物。例如岩石中的主要礦物︰堅硬的長石，經水解後變成黏土性的高嶺石（kaolinite）。

雨水在下降途中，會溶解一些二氧化碳，到達地面的雨水變成微弱的碳酸，因此便產生碳酸化作用。岩石之中，以石灰岩及其他含碳酸岩石，最易受碳酸化作用影響。例如組成石灰岩的碳酸鈣經碳酸化作用而變成碳酸氫鈣，後者易溶於水，故此風化物會被溶解而帶走。石灰岩地區在地表水及地下水的作用，往往形成奇特的山勢及地貌。

主要的化學風化方式之一。