- ?Lv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
Sun Yat-sen was born on November 12, 1866, to a peasant family in the village of Cuiheng, Xiangshan county , Guangzhou prefecture, Guangdong province (26 km or 16 miles north of Macau).When Sun Yat-sen died in 1925, the name of Xiangshan was changed toZhongshan, His Japanese name when he was living in Japan. As a child,Sun Yat-sen listened to many stories about the Taiping Rebellionfrom an old Taiping soldier named Lai han-ying . After receiving afew years of local school, at age thirteen, Sun went to live with hiselder brother, Sun Mei, in Honolulu. Sun Mei, who was fifteen years Sun Yat-sen's senior, had emigrated to Hawaii as a laborer and had become a prosperous merchant.Though Sun Mei was not always supportive of Sun's later revolutionaryactivities, he supported his brother financially, allowing Sun to giveup his professional career. Sun Yat-sen studied at the prestigious Iolani Schoolwhere he learned English, mathematics and science. Originally unable tospeak the English language, Sun Yat-sen picked up the language soquickly that he received a prize for outstanding achievement in Englishfrom King David Kalakaua.He became a citizen of the United States and was issued an Americanpassport. It is unclear whether or not he maintained his originalcitizenship as a subject of the Qing empire. After graduation fromIolani School in 1882, Sun enrolled in Oahu College (now Punahou School) for further studies for one semester.. He was soon sent home to China as his brother was becoming afraid that Sun Yat-sen was about to embrace Christianity. While at Iolani, he befriended Tong Phong, who later founded the First Chinese-American Bank.
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His American experience was to be of lasting influence. Sun attached particular importance to the ideas of Alexander Hamilton and Abraham Lincoln.
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Sun often said that the formulation of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, “government of the people, by the people, for the people”, had been the inspiration for the Three Principles of the People. He incorporated these ideas, later in life, in two highly influential books
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Sun studied English at the Anglican Diocesan Home and Orphanage (currently Diocesan Boys' School) in Hong Kong. In April 1884, Sun was transferred to the Central School of Hong Kong (later renamed Queen's College).
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Sun was later baptized in Hong Kong by an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States, to his brother's disdain. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian church.
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His conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement. As a result, his baptismal name, Rixin , literally means "daily renewal.
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Sun, who had grown increasingly troubled by the conservative Qing government and its refusal to adopt knowledge from the more technologically advanced Western nations, quit his medical practice in order to devote his time to transforming China.
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At first, Sun aligned himself with the reformists Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao who sought to transform China into a Western-style constitutional monarchy.
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In 1894, Sun wrote a long letter to Li Hongzhang, the governor-general of Zhili and a reformer in the court, with suggestions on how to strengthen China, but he was rebuffed.
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Since Sun had never been trained in the classics, the gentry did not accept Sun into their circles. From then on, Sun began to call for the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic.
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In 1895 a coup he plotted failed, and for the next sixteen years Sun was an exile in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Japan, raising money for his revolutionary party and bankrolling uprisings in China.
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The official history of the Kuomintang (and for that matter, the Communist Party of China) emphasizes Sun's role as the first provisional President,
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but many historians now question the importance of Sun's role in the 1911 revolution and point out that he had no direct role in the Wuchang uprising and was in fact out of the country at the time.
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In this interpretation, his naming as the first provisional President was precisely because he was a respected but rather unimportant figure and therefore served as an ideal compromise candidate between the revolutionaries and the conservative gentry.
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fter taking the oath of office, Sun Yat-sen sent telegrams to the leaders of all provinces, requesting them to elect and send new senators to establish the National Assembly of the Republic of China.
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The Assembly then declared the provisional government organizational guidelines and the provisional law of the Republic as the basic law of the nation.
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The major issue before the provisional government was gaining the support of Yuan Shikai, the man in charge of the Beiyang Army, the military of northern China.
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After Sun promised Yuan the presidency of the new Republic, Yuan sided with the revolution and forced the emperor to abdicate.
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(Eventually, Yuan proclaimed himself emperor and afterwards opposition snowballed against Yuan's dictatorial methods, leading him to renounce the throne shortly before his death in 1916.)
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In the late 1910s, China was greatly divided by different military leaders without a proper central government. Sun saw the danger of this and returned to China in 1917 to advocate unification.
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He started a self-proclaimed military government in Guangzhou (Canton), Guangdong Province, southern China, in 1921, and was elected as president and generalissimo.
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To develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition against the militarists at Beijing, he established the Whampoa Military Academy near Guangzhou,
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with Chiang Kai-shek as its commandant and with such party leaders as Wang Ching-wei and Hu Han-min as political instructors.
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The Academy was the most eminent military school of the Republic of China and trained graduates who fought in the Second Sino-Japanese War and on both sides of the Chinese Civil War.
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He again became premier of the Kuomintang from 10 October 1919 – 12 March 1925. In the early 1920s Sun received help from the Comintern for his reorganization of the Kuomintang as a Leninist Democratic-Centrist Party and negotiated the First CCP-KMT United Front.
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In 1924, in order to hasten the conquest of China, he began a policy of active cooperation with the Chinese Communists.
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On November 10, 1924, Sun traveled north and delivered another speech to suggest gathering a conference for the Chinese people and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers.
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Two days later, he yet again traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the country, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords.
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Although ill at the time, he was still head of the southern government. On November 28, 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a remarkable speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan.
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He left Guangzhou to hold peace talks with the northern regional leaders on the unification of China. Sun died of liver cancer on March 12, 1925, at the age of 58 at the Rockefeller Hospital in Beijing.
- 小翼Lv 47 years ago
- 1 decade ago
Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the Father of Modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. He was the first provisional president when the Republic of China (ROC) was founded in 1912 and later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT) where he served as its first leader. Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered in both Mainland China and Taiwan.
Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution, he quickly fell out of power in the newly-founded Republic of China, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party bring about consolidation of power over the country. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two factions after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing a political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People (The People's Relation/Connection, The People's Power, and the People's Livelihood/Welfare, or sometimes known as nationalism, democracy/sovereignty, and socialism/livelihoodSource(s): my