Anonymous
Anonymous asked in Cars & TransportationAircraft · 1 decade ago

When landing an airplane, how do you flare the nose without making the go higher?

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  • 1 decade ago
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    Assuming you've made a stabilized approach (constant airspeed, stable rate of descent, and without the need for major control inputs) then the flare is just a matter of practice. I imagine as you get close to the runway (say roughly the same height above ground as a hangar roof) you will gradually reduce power to idle and pitch up from your nose-low approach attitude to a more nose-level attitude. This is often called the round-out and immediately precedes the flare. When I talk about a flare I am assuming you are already just a few feet above ground.

    The flare, as you correctly stated, is the time when you gradually pitch up as the aircraft slows without climbing (ballooning). The purpose is to slow the airplane down and touchdown at the slowest possible speed. The difficulty you have with making the flare without ballooning is very common, and no matter what it will take practice. The best way to practice this is to sharpen your sense of vertical movement while landing. I recommend looking further down the runway--toward the horizon, and be aware of cues in your peripheral vision that your airplane is sinking or rising. Your peripheral vision is particularly useful when the aircraft nose blocks the horizon. Pay attention, and over time you will develop a feel for the aircraft's sink-rate.

    In the flare you should increase pitch to keep the airplane barely sinking toward the ground--we're talking almost level. As the airplane slows in airspeed you will feel it sink. Increase pitch to all-but-stop the sinking. If you increase the pitch to the point where the airplane completely stops descending, then hold that pitch where it is until the airplane starts to sink again. If you pitch up too rapidly and the airplane starts to balloon, your best bet is usually a go-around, although very very slight balloons can sometimes be corrected by simply holding the pitch and waiting for more speed to bleed off and the airplane to sink again. In all cases, resist the urge to lower the pitch of the nose. Your airplane is still slowing down on its own, and lowering the nose will kill what little lift you have left and could set you on the pavement pretty hard.

    The rate at which you'll have to pitch up in the flare will vary depending on the day, the weight of the airplane, your airspeed, winds, etc... Some days it will be very fluid and gradual, and on other days you may find yourself having to make a few quick pitch adjustments. But if you try to make your adjustments in response to how rapidly the aircraft is sinking toward the ground based on visual cues out the window, then you should have good luck.

    Remember you a trying to control a one ton piece of aluminum flying at 50 mph within the precision of a few inches... it definitely takes practice! Have fun and good luck!

    Source(s): coaching over 3000 student landings
  • 1 decade ago

    You can't. There will always be a very slight nose up pitch since you want to touch on the mains first. You just can't flare every airplane like you can a single engine Cessna or you run the risk of dragging the tail or fuselage on the runway. The last airplane I flew was a long, low one and even still, you generally pitched up about 3 degrees to land (more then 6 degrees, tailstrike!)

    As others have mentioned, you have to increase the angle of attack to compensate for the decreasing speed. Too much increase with too much speed will cause the airplane to "balloon" back into the air. Too much increase with too little speed will cause a stall, which if you are 5 ft or so off the ground can make for a harsh landing. A stall at 50ft is bad news. Either way, you have to arrest the descent.

    Source(s): Pilot, CFII
  • 4 years ago

    1

    Source(s): Realistic Airplane Flight Simulator : http://FlightSimulator.siopu.com/?BVk
  • Anonymous
    4 years ago

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    RE:

    When landing an airplane, how do you flare the nose without making the go higher?

    Source(s): landing airplane flare nose making higher: https://tr.im/ePsM8
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  • 1 decade ago

    During an approach the pilot mostly will try to establish a constant Vertical speed descent (3 Deg. slope = 5 times GS).

    The Flare rate depends on the Rate of Descent (C152 normally flares 10 feet above, Space Shuttle begins flare 7 miles above.)

    For a normal descent with a C152 the airplane's rate of descent should be normal which the pilot will then reduce the power required at that angle of attack and speed so as to not climb when the angle is increased.

    When the Aircraft then enters Ground effect (Airflow patters changed when less than one wingspan above the ground). the Airplanes rate of descent is reduced due to lift being increased proportionally to the dramatic decrease in drag.

    The aircraft is in the attitude for a climb but because of the Power required is not available to generate lift and speed, it will settle onto the runway. The drag has been reduced a lot and lift is increased due the Ground Effect, so the airplane touches down at a slower speed.

    Let that nose down and you only decrease the lift you need to make a gradual descent. If you increase the rate at which you need to flare (Flare to fast) then you only momentarily increased lift more than weight therefore "Ballooning" the airplane.

    On the other hand if the airspeed becomes to low before entering Ground effect and assume the Flare/climb angle then aircraft will enter whats called Reverse Command. The aircraft is referred to being behind the power curve, this is the airplane flying with very high drag little lift, a few knots from stalled. This phenomenon make the airplane seem to be flying with reverse control inputs. Pitch up and it descends faster, add power and aggravate the descent.

    The only way to solve this is to reduce the angle of attack with you make a go-around

    Source(s): CFII
  • John R
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    This is known as flaring, and it is an act that balances two properties of flight: As a plane slows down, the lift generated by the wings decreases, and as the angle of attack is increased, the capacity of the wing to create lift and drag is increased.

    During the flare, slowly increasing the angle of attack as airspeed bleeds off allows the plane to slow the rate of decent while allowing a lower touchdown speed. Done perfectly, the plane should reach the critical angle of attack and the minimum airspeed just as the wheels contact the runway.

  • 1 decade ago

    As the pilot decide to land the aircraft he does two things.

    1) He slows the aircraft down to as close to stalling speed as is safe to still fly the aeroplane.

    2) He deploys the flaps and spoilers.

    By doing this the aircraft is decending and slowing down. The flaps allow for a lower landing speed and help to slow the aircraft down. The faster an aircraft goes, the more lift is generated over the wings. SO by slowing the aircraft, less lift is generated, so the aircraft decends. When the pilotflares the aircraft it is still sinking, as well as losing a lot op speed fast!!

  • Funzzy
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    People have the tendency to pull back on the yoke more that whats needed and then plane stalls too soon.

    Depending on the type of plane and runway length, best thing is to practice with very small amount of power as start the flare, (but make sure that you do n't exceed the recommended speeds), so that you don't stall the plane too soon and slam it to the pavement. When you get the feel and the attitude of the plane o where the nose should be during the flare, then slowly come in with less and less power and soon you 'll be doing the flare with no power.

    My plane is a bit nose heavy, I need to land with power most of the time or have more speed before flare.

  • 1 decade ago

    If you are pulling back and the aircraft starts climbing then you are coming in to fast. slow down for landing.

  • 1 decade ago

    Reduce the power

    Source(s): Retired ATP
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