英文期刊句子翻譯英翻中(請勿使用翻譯軟體直翻)感恩!贈10點

Measures

We adapted items from existing scales and developed additional items based on

our review of the literature. All items were measured on a 7-point Likert-type scale

ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (totally agree). The exact item wordings

are given in the Appendix.

Fan Loyalty. The fan loyalty construct consists of two dimensions: psychological

commitment and behavioral loyalty. Attitudinal loyalty was measured by items

adapted from the Psychological Commitment to a Team (PCT) scale (Mahony,

Madrigal, & Howard, 2000; Kwon & Trail, 2003) and from the TAM (Gladden &

Funk, 2001). In addition, we added two items embracing the notion that commit-

ted fans deeply care about the future welfare of the club. These items were drawn

from Garbarino and Johnson’s (1999) commitment scale. These scales have not

previously been tested on German soccer fans. For that reason, we included a wide

range of possible items that describe the construct.

We used both general measures of brand loyalty (Homburg & Giering, 1999)

and sport-speciic measures (e.g., Fink, Trail, & Anderson, 2003) to formulate the

behavioral items. The behavioral-loyalty construct considers both past (e.g., “I

have purchased a lot of club-related merchandise”) and future behaviors (e.g., “I

will purchase a lot of club-related merchandise”). To reduce the complexity for the

construct and structural-equation analyses, we aggregated the item scores for the

past and future behavior items by calculating an average score.

1 Answer

Rating
  • 小君
    Lv 6
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    措施

    我們調整的項目從現有的規模和發展更多的項目的基礎上

    我們審查的文獻。所有項目檢測的7點利克特型規模

    從1 (強烈反對)到7 (完全同意) 。項目的確切文字

    給出的附錄。

    範忠誠度。球迷的忠誠度建設包括兩個方面:心理

    承諾和行為的忠誠度。態度忠誠度是衡量項目

    改編自心理承諾團隊( PCT )的規模(馬洪尼,

    牧歌,與霍華德, 2000年;權和開拓者, 2003年)和譚(慆&

    方克, 2001年) 。此外,我們還增加了兩個項目的擁抱概念,即承諾,

    泰德球迷深感關心未來福利的俱樂部。這些物品被提請

    從脫離危險和約翰遜( 1999年)的承諾表。這些表都沒有

    以前曾在德國測試的球迷。出於這個原因,我們列入了廣泛

    一系列可能的項目,說明建設。

    我們用一般的措施品牌的忠誠度(洪堡& Giering , 1999年)

    和體育speciic措施(例如,芬克,步道,與安德森, 2003年)制定的

    行為的項目。行為忠誠建設都認為過去的(例如, “我

    已經購買了很多俱樂部有關的商品“ )和未來的行為(例如, ”我

    購買了很多俱樂部有關的商品“ ) 。為了減少複雜性的

    建設和結構方程分析,我們匯總了該項目的分數

    過去和未來行為的項目計算平均得分。

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