Corruption occurs in many forms, but could be defined as the demanding or receiving, offering or
giving, of undue reward by or to any persons in order to influence their behaviour and to persuade
them to act contrary to the normal
Example 1 :Corrupt Practices could occur during the planning and design phase of a construction project.
1)Firstly a project owner may bribe a government or local authority official in order to obtain planning permission for a project, or to obtain approval for a design which does not meet relevant
2) Another way corruption could occur in a construction project would be in the case when the project may, as a result of a bribe, be designed or specified by the owner or engineer in a
manner which improperly favours one bidder over the others. For example, a certain technology
which is only possessed by one of the bidders may be specified, even though other technologies
may be preferable or cheaper. This would normally result in the contractors who do not possess
the specified technology being kept off the pre-qualification list, or being rejected as non-
compliant at tender stage. In some cases, the owner would knowingly have caused the design to
be undertaken in this manner. In other cases, the owner may not be aware that the design has
been undertaken in this manner (for example where the owner has appointed an architect or
engineering consultant to undertake the design, or where the decision is taken corruptly by a
representative of the owner)
Example 2:Corrupt practises could occur within a political system ie. Political corruption.
In Australia (New South Wales in 1989) A public service job was provided in New South Wales in 1989 the Premier, Nick Greiner, was accused by the anti-corruption commission which he had established on coming into office, of acting corruptly in providing a public service job for a former supporter so as to enlarge his majority in the New South Wales Parliament. This was done against the law and in conflict between the demands of politics and the demands of public office.
Example 3:Corruption can occur via extortion: (as in India's Health Care Industry):
Just as the painful ordeal of childbirth finally ended and
Nesam Velankanni waited for a nurse to lay her squalling
newborn on her chest, the maternity hospital’s ritual of
extortion began. Before she even glimpsed her baby, she said, a
nurse whisked the infant away and an attendant demanded a
bribe. If you want to see your child, families are told, the price is
$12 for a boy and $7 for a girl.” This actually happened and was mentioned in the ‘New York Times on August 30, 2005
New York Times.
I have taken a number of courses in business law.