Emergent properties’ represent one of the most significant challenges for
the engineering of complex systems.
They can be thought of as
unexpected behaviors that stem from interaction between the components
of an application and their environment
A broader example of emergent properties in biology is the combination of individual atoms to form molecules such as polypeptide chains, which in turn fold and refold to form proteins. These proteins, assuming their functional status from their spatial conformation, interact together to achieve higher biological functions and eventually create - organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms.