Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. Economic analysis is applied throughout society, in business and finance but also in crime, education, the family, health, law, politics, religion, social institutions, and war. Economic textbooks distinguish between microeconomics ("small" economics), which examines the economic behavior of agents (including individuals and firms) and "macroeconomics" ("big" economics), addressing issues of unemployment, inflation, monetary and fiscal policy.
Business economics (also called managerial economics), is a branch of economics that applies microeconomic analysis to specific business decisions. As such, it bridges economic theory and economics in practice. It draws heavily from quantitative techniques such as regression analysis and correlation, Lagrangian calculus (linear). If there is a unifying theme that runs through most of business economics it is the attempt to optimize business decisions given the firm's objectives and given constraints imposed by scarcity, for example through the use of operations research and programming.