得閒人 asked in 社會及文化語言 · 1 decade ago

a complete sentence after ”by”

Tbilsi's desire to seize back Abkhazia and South Ossetia by force had killed all hopes for their peaceful co-existence in one state with Georgia.

what is the usage of the following part? noun or complete sentence?

force had killed all hopes for their peaceful co-existence in one state with Georgia.

in my understanding, we can put a noun after the "by" only

1 Answer

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  • Baggio
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Best Answer

    in my understanding, we can put a noun after the "by" only – Yes, and here the word “force” which is a noun is put after by. By force is a phrasal verb.

    what is the usage of the following part? noun or complete sentence? – after we take away “by force” which actually belongs to the first part of the sentence, the latter part becomes :

    had killed all hopes for their peaceful co-existence in one state with Georgia .

    This is a verb clause using past perfect tense. It cannot stand alone without the first part so we cannot call this a complete sentence.

    The usage of this part is to describe the result of Tbilisi ’s desire. Without this part the first part of the sentence also cannot stand by itself.

    Source(s): Myself
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