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Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

英文句中,主詞為沒有生命的主體一定要用被動式嗎?

沒有生命的東西,不會自己做出動作.它們當主詞時,是不是都要用被動式呢?

There are so many cars parked at the airport terminal.

The car isn't starting again.

為何第一句要用被動式,而第二句是用主動式呢?

為何第二句不是用The car isn't being started again.呢?

Update:

I look up some textbook and find out the use of the passive, it says:

The passive cannot be used with intransitive verbs.

Does it clarify my question?

Update 2:

沒想到被動式的用法也能這麼複雜啊....

以前老師只教我們如何將主動式改成被動式

卻沒有告訴我們哪些"看似"被動的語句,卻不需要使用被動式.

我想大部份的人應該都沒聽過"Ergative動詞",可能連有些英文老師自己也不知道吧...

謝謝Elisa這麼熱心的為我解答,真的很感謝您.但是您的解答對我有些艱深難懂,所以我把贈點給MJ羅莉.她的回答"主動或被動, 不是以有無生命來分, 而是以語意以及動詞的性質來區分."比較淺顯易懂.

再次謝謝3位熱心的回答,謝謝您們!

3 Answers

Rating
  • 羅莉
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago
    Favorite Answer

    主動或被動, 不是以有無生命來分, 而是以語意以及動詞的性質來區分. 舉例來說:

    I found a stone spreading a special fragrant smell. 我發現一顆散發著特殊香味的石頭.

    stone是無生命, 但spread動詞具「物主動」性質, 所以用Ving.

    He keeps very well a picture carrying an important meaning. 他細心保存著一張帶有重要意義的相片.

    picture是無生命, 但carry動詞具「物主動」性質, 所以用Ving.

    2008-08-27 21:31:44 補充:

    Elisa's explanation is very informative and helpful.

    Source(s): 英語相關行業20年.
  • Elisa
    Lv 7
    1 decade ago

    不要假設只有生物才有主動語態,非生物全是被動語態。 在英語語言學,有一種動詞類別叫Ergative動詞,屬於中間語態, 但語態就像主動語態.

    In English linguistics, there is a category of verbs known as Ergative Verbs, which acts like an active voice. They are verbs which allow the three-voice option of active, middle or passive. Examples include close, evaporate, bend, increase, hang, sink, shrink, drown, break, change, drop, etc.

    An ergative verb in English is where the verb doesn't have an agent for a subject but the verb in a way expresses the action itself without having a separate subject

    The middle voice can be seen as in the middle of active voice and passive voice. When it is used, the object of a transitive clause (e.g. water in sentences 1 and a pen in sentence 4) becomes the subject of an intransitive clause (see sentences 3 and 6). There may be no doers at all, and even if there are doers, the actions are often not done deliberately or intentionally by the doers.

    1. The sun evaporates water. (Active Voice)

    2. Water is evaporated (by the sun). (Passive Voice)

    3. Water evaporates. (Middle Voice acting like active voice)

    4. Someone dropped a pen. (Active)

    5. A pen was dropped (by someone). (Passive)

    6. A pen dropped. (Middle)

    7. She baked the cake for an hour (Active)

    8. The cake was baked for an hour (Passive).

    9. The cake baked for an hour (Middle).

    10. The host opened the fair on March 17(A)

    11. The fair was opened on March 17 (P)

    12. The fair opened on March 17 (M)

    13. This fact proves his guilt. (M)

    14. A mosquito net hangs over his bed.

    15. The ice melted into water. (M)

    These are some of the characteristics of ergative verbs.

    Verbs suggesting a change of state — break, burst, melt, tear, moisten

    Verbs of cooking — bake, boil, cook, fry

    Verbs of movement — move, shake, sweep, turn, open, eject, march

    Verbs involving vehicles — drive, fly, reverse, sail.

    See below for more details on ergative verbs:

    2008-08-25 16:22:34 補充:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_verb

    http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/ergative-verb...

    http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chan-ErgativeVerbs.ht...

    http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_erg... (list of ergative verbs).

    2008-08-26 00:46:16 補充:

    After reading the examples I provided, if you still don't understand why sentence # 1 is passive voice and #2 is ergative mood, please let me know.

    2008-08-26 21:47:37 補充:

    In your sentence #2, you can rewrite it as:

    I cannot start the car. (active)

    The car cannot be started. (passive)

    The car cannot start itself. (ergative)

    2008-08-26 21:49:41 補充:

    As for your questions regarding intransitive verbs and passive voice, you can look up this grammar site. It has very detailed explanation of it. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/verbs.htm

    2008-08-26 21:51:48 補充:

    Verbs that are intransitive do not require objects: "The building collapsed." In English, you cannot tell the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb by its form; you have to see how the verb is functioning within the sentence.

    2008-08-26 21:52:33 補充:

    In fact, a verb can be both transitive and intransitive: "The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it."

    The building collapsed (ergative)

    The monster collapsed the building (active)

    The building was collapsed by the monster (passive)

    2008-08-26 21:58:33 補充:

    http://www.answers.com/topic/intransitive-verb-1

    In most languages, there are some verbs which are ambitransitive: they can act as intransitive or as transitive. In some ambitransitive verbs, called ergative verbs, the alignment of the syntactic arguments to the semantic roles is exchanged.

    2008-08-26 22:00:32 補充:

    For example:

    (1) I broke the cup. (active)

    (2) The cup broke. (ergative)

    (3) The cup was broken by me (passive)

    "Break", "Collapse" and "Start", are both transitive and intransitive verbs.

    Is this clear to you?

    2008-08-26 22:37:58 補充:

    I cannot add any more to my answers, so these are my additional comments.

    The questions you asked were not about intransitive verbs not being able to be used in passive form.

    If your questions were:

    2008-08-26 22:38:38 補充:

    I overslept last night.

    I traveled to Paris last week.

    Then, the only form used here are active voice.

    Source(s): Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992.
  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    其實這是習慣說法,請您不要拘泥在無生命這個文法

    您想想看start begin work play 這些動詞是不是常常用在無生命物體的後面呢? 但是有些動詞用了你看到就是會認為不妥怪怪的,懂嗎? 其實這些動詞start begin work play 也不多。

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