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There are so many cars parked at the airport terminal.
The car isn't starting again.
為何第二句不是用The car isn't being started again.呢？
I look up some textbook and find out the use of the passive, it says:
The passive cannot be used with intransitive verbs.
Does it clarify my question?
謝謝Elisa這麼熱心的為我解答，真的很感謝您．但是您的解答對我有些艱深難懂，所以我把贈點給MJ羅莉．她的回答"主動或被動, 不是以有無生命來分, 而是以語意以及動詞的性質來區分．"比較淺顯易懂．
- 羅莉Lv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
主動或被動, 不是以有無生命來分, 而是以語意以及動詞的性質來區分. 舉例來說:
I found a stone spreading a special fragrant smell. 我發現一顆散發著特殊香味的石頭.
stone是無生命, 但spread動詞具「物主動」性質, 所以用Ving.
He keeps very well a picture carrying an important meaning. 他細心保存著一張帶有重要意義的相片.
picture是無生命, 但carry動詞具「物主動」性質, 所以用Ving.
2008-08-27 21:31:44 補充：
Elisa's explanation is very informative and helpful.Source(s): 英語相關行業20年.
- ElisaLv 71 decade ago
不要假設只有生物才有主動語態，非生物全是被動語態。 在英語語言學，有一種動詞類別叫Ergative動詞，屬於中間語態, 但語態就像主動語態.
In English linguistics, there is a category of verbs known as Ergative Verbs, which acts like an active voice. They are verbs which allow the three-voice option of active, middle or passive. Examples include close, evaporate, bend, increase, hang, sink, shrink, drown, break, change, drop, etc.
An ergative verb in English is where the verb doesn't have an agent for a subject but the verb in a way expresses the action itself without having a separate subject
The middle voice can be seen as in the middle of active voice and passive voice. When it is used, the object of a transitive clause (e.g. water in sentences 1 and a pen in sentence 4) becomes the subject of an intransitive clause (see sentences 3 and 6). There may be no doers at all, and even if there are doers, the actions are often not done deliberately or intentionally by the doers.
1. The sun evaporates water. (Active Voice)
2. Water is evaporated (by the sun). (Passive Voice)
3. Water evaporates. (Middle Voice acting like active voice)
4. Someone dropped a pen. (Active)
5. A pen was dropped (by someone). (Passive)
6. A pen dropped. (Middle)
7. She baked the cake for an hour (Active)
8. The cake was baked for an hour (Passive).
9. The cake baked for an hour (Middle).
10. The host opened the fair on March 17(A)
11. The fair was opened on March 17 (P)
12. The fair opened on March 17 (M)
13. This fact proves his guilt. (M)
14. A mosquito net hangs over his bed.
15. The ice melted into water. (M)
These are some of the characteristics of ergative verbs.
Verbs suggesting a change of state — break, burst, melt, tear, moisten
Verbs of cooking — bake, boil, cook, fry
Verbs of movement — move, shake, sweep, turn, open, eject, march
Verbs involving vehicles — drive, fly, reverse, sail.
See below for more details on ergative verbs:
2008-08-25 16:22:34 補充：
http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_erg... (list of ergative verbs).
2008-08-26 00:46:16 補充：
After reading the examples I provided, if you still don't understand why sentence # 1 is passive voice and #2 is ergative mood, please let me know.
2008-08-26 21:47:37 補充：
In your sentence #2, you can rewrite it as:
I cannot start the car. (active)
The car cannot be started. (passive)
The car cannot start itself. (ergative)
2008-08-26 21:49:41 補充：
As for your questions regarding intransitive verbs and passive voice, you can look up this grammar site. It has very detailed explanation of it. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/verbs.htm
2008-08-26 21:51:48 補充：
Verbs that are intransitive do not require objects: "The building collapsed." In English, you cannot tell the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb by its form; you have to see how the verb is functioning within the sentence.
2008-08-26 21:52:33 補充：
In fact, a verb can be both transitive and intransitive: "The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it."
The building collapsed (ergative)
The monster collapsed the building (active)
The building was collapsed by the monster (passive)
2008-08-26 21:58:33 補充：
In most languages, there are some verbs which are ambitransitive: they can act as intransitive or as transitive. In some ambitransitive verbs, called ergative verbs, the alignment of the syntactic arguments to the semantic roles is exchanged.
2008-08-26 22:00:32 補充：
(1) I broke the cup. (active)
(2) The cup broke. (ergative)
(3) The cup was broken by me (passive)
"Break", "Collapse" and "Start", are both transitive and intransitive verbs.
Is this clear to you?
2008-08-26 22:37:58 補充：
I cannot add any more to my answers, so these are my additional comments.
The questions you asked were not about intransitive verbs not being able to be used in passive form.
If your questions were:
2008-08-26 22:38:38 補充：
I overslept last night.
I traveled to Paris last week.
Then, the only form used here are active voice.Source(s): Myself. Went abroad at age 11. With 32 years experience speaking and writing English. Tutored English as an Undergrad. A project manager in the US since 1992.
- Anonymous1 decade ago
您想想看start begin work play 這些動詞是不是常常用在無生命物體的後面呢? 但是有些動詞用了你看到就是會認為不妥怪怪的，懂嗎? 其實這些動詞start begin work play 也不多。