Under Habsburg rule (chiefly under Charles I and Philip II of Spain), Spain reached the zenith of its influence and power, controlling territory ranging from the Americas to the Philippines in Asia, the Low Countries (which included territories now in France and Germany), to most of modern-day Italy in Europe, and from 1580 to 1640 Portugal, the Portuguese Empire and various other territories such as Malta in the Mediterranean basin and small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. Altogether, Habsburg Spain was, for well over a century, the world’s greatest power. For this reason, this period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion". The Habsburg years were also a Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. Some of the outstanding figures of the period were Diego Velázquez, El Greco, Miguel de Cervantes, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca. By 1500, Europe was beginning to emerge from these demographic disasters, and populations began to explode. Seville, which was home to 60,000 people in 1500 burgeoned to 150,000 by the end of the century. There was a substantial movement to the cities of Spain to capitalize on new opportunities as shipbuilders and merchants to service Spain’s impressive and growing empire. The 16th century was a time of development in Spain as both agriculture and trade burgeoned. Throughout the harsh interior of Castile grain and wool production grew. The former fed an expansion of the population. The latter fed both local textile manufacturing and a lucrative trade with the Netherlands. The Castilian cities of Burgos, Segovia, Cuenca and Toledo, flourished with the expansion of the textile and metellurgical industries. Santander, on the northern Atlantic coast, flourished in its traditional roles as a port linking the country’s interior with northern Europe and as a ship building centre. Southern cities like Cadiz and Seville flourished from the commerce and shipbuilding spurred on by the demands of the American colonies. Barcelona, already one of Europe’s most important and sophisticated trading port cities since the Middle Ages, continued to develop.