what is the difference beween the four types of human immunity?
- Clare SLv 51 decade agoFavorite Answer
Active immunity is when an individual makes specific antibodies themselves in response to encounter with a 'foreign' antigen.
1. Natural active immunity is producing specific antibodies during infection by a virus/bacterium and memory cells remaining in the bloodstream after recovery to give a faster secondary response if the same antigen is encountered again, making the individual immune to that pathogen.
2. Artificial active immunity is when an individual is given an injection of a small dose of weakened pathogen to stimulate their immune system to produce specific antibodies against that infection.
The pathogen has attenuated DNA so that it cannot replicate but the surface antigens remain intact to stimulate antibody production.
Passive immunity is where an individual receives ready made antibodies produced in another animal/human.
3. Natural passive immunity is where antibodies are received from the mother, either across the placenta during pregnancy or in breastmilk, particularly colostrum the first breastmilk.
4. Artificial passive immunity is where an individual is given an injection of ready made antibodies produced in another animal, eg a horse. This can be in response to an acute infection which could be life threatening, where it would take too long for their immune system to produce antibodies.
Hope this helps!Source(s): Myself, I am a Biology teacher!
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- 6 years ago
Naturally Acquired Active- person develops this immunity by being injected with a pathogen and subsequently making antibodies and memory cells against the pathogen. Immunizations and vaccines cause this type of immunity.
Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity- Received from mother when she breast feeds, she passes antibodies to her baby through breast milk. A mother also passes antibodies to her baby across the placenta.
Artificially Acquired Immunity- A person receives this immunity when she is injected with antibodies.
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- 1 decade ago
1. Surface barriers(skin, mucous membranes)
-The body's first line of defense; the skin and the mucous membranes, along with secretions these membranes produce-is highly effective. It presents a formidable physical barrier to most microorganisms that swarm on the skin.
2. Internal defenses (Phagocytes, fever, nk cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammation)
-The body uses en enormous number of nonspecific cellular and chemical devices to protect itself. The inflammatory response enlists macrophages, mast cells, wbcs, that kill pathogens and help repair tissue
3.Humoral immunity (B cells)
-the first encounter bwteen immunocompetent but naive lymphocyte and an invading antigen, usually takes place in the spleen or in a lymph node, but it may happen in any lymphoid tissue. If the lymphocyte is a B cell, the challending antigen provokes the humoral immune response, in which antibodies are produced against the challenger
4.Cellular immunity (T cells)
-there are two major populations of effector T cells based on which of a pair of structurally related cell differentiation glycoproteins. there are helper T cells & cytotoxic T cells
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