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help! please! easy 10 points.?

please give me 5 historical sites in ANTARCTICA. please. please include the source if possible. :)

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  • 1 decade ago
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    http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie...

    Descriptions of Historic Sites and Monuments in Antarctica

    1 Flag mast at South Pole

    90°S. Flag mast erected in December 1965 at the geographic South Pole by the first Argentine Overland Polar Expedition.

    2 Rock cairn and plaques on Ongul Island, Prins Harald Kyst

    69°00'S, 39°35'E. Rock cairn and plaques at Syowa Station (Japan) in memory of Shin Fukushima, a member of the 4th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, who died in October 1960. Some of his ashes repose in the cairn.

    3 Rock cairn and plaque on Proclamation Island, Enderby Land

    65°51'S, 53°41'E. Rock cairn and plaque erected in January 1930 by Sir Douglas Mawson to commemorate the landing by a party of the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31.

    4 Bust and plaque at 'Pole of Inaccessibility'

    83°06'S, 54°58'E. Station building to which a bust of Vladimir I. Lenin is fixed, together with a plaque in memory of the conquest of the Pole of Inaccessibility by Soviet Antarctic explorers in 1958.

    5 Rock cairn and plaque at Cape Bruce, Mac. Robertson Land

    67°25'S, 60°47'E. Rock cairn and plaque erected in February 1931 by Sir Douglas Mawson to commemorate the landing by a party of the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31.

    6 Rock cairn and canister at Walkabout Rocks, Vestfold Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land

    68°22'S, 78°32'E. Rock cairn erected in 1939 by Sir Hubert Wilkins. The cairn houses a canister containing a record of his visit.

    7 Stone and plaque at Mabus Point, Queen Mary Land

    66°33'S, 93°01'E. Stone with inscribed plaque erected at Mirny Observatory (Russia) in memory of driver-mechanic Ivan Khmara who perished on fast ice, 21 January 1956.

    8 Monument sledge and plaque at Mabus Point, Queen Mary Land

    66°33'S, 93°01'E. Metal monument sledge with plaque at Mirny Observatory (Russia) in memory of driver-mechanic Anatoly Shcheglov who perished in the performance of official duties, 25 February, 1962.

    9 Cemetery on Buromskiy Island, Queen Mary Land

    66°32'S, 93°00'E. Cemetery in which are buried Soviet, Czechoslovak and German citizens, members of Soviet Antarctic Expeditions, who perished in the performance of official duties on 3 August, 1960.

    10 Observatory at Bunger Hills, Queen Mary Land

    66°16'S, 100°45'E. Magnetic observatory at Dobrowolski Station (Poland) with plaque in memory of the opening of Oazis Station in 1956.

    11 Tractor and plaque at Vostok Station

    78°28'S, 106°49'E. Heavy tractor with plaque at Vostock Station (Russia) in memory of the opening of the station in 1957.

    12 Cross and plaque at Cape Denison, George V Land

    67°00'S, 142°39E. Cross and plaque erected in 1913 by Sir Douglas Mawson on a hill 300 m south-west of the main hut of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-14. The cross and plaque commemorate Lieutenant Belgrave E.S. Ninnis and Dr Xavier Mertz, who died in 1913 while engaged in the work of the expedition.

    13 Hut at Cape Denison, George V Land

    67°00'S, 142°42'E. Hut built in 1912 by Sir Douglas Mawson's Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-14. This was the main base of the expedition.

    14 Ice cave at Inexpressible Island, Terra Nova Bay, Scott Coast

    74°54'S, 163°43'E. Site of ice cave constructed in March 1912 by Victor Campbell's Northern Party of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13. The party spent the winter of 1912 in this ice cave.

    15 Hut at Cape Royds, Ross Island

    77°33'S, 166°10'E. Hut built in February 1908 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-09, led by Sir Ernest Shackleton.

    16 Hut at Cape Evans, Ross Island redesignated as SPA No. 25

    17 Cross at Cape Evans, Ross Island redesignated as SPA No. 25

    18 Hut at Hut Point, Ross Island

    77°50S, 166°37'E. Hut built in February 1902 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1901-04, led by Captain Robert F. Scott.

    19 Cross at Hut Point, Ross Island

    77°50'S, 166°37'E. Cross erected in February 1904 by the British Antarctic Expedition, 1901-04, in memory of George Vince, a member of the expedition, who died in the vicinity.

    20 Cross on Observation Hill, Ross Island

    77°51'S, 166°41'E. Cross erected in January 1913 by the British Antarctic Expedition of 1910-13 in memory of Captain Robert F. Scott's party which perished on the return journey from the South Pole in March 1912.

    21 Hut at Cape Crozier, Ross Island

    77°31'S, 169°22'E. Remains of stone hut constructed in July 1911 by Dr Edward Wilson's party of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13, during the winter journey to collect emperor penguin eggs.

    22 Hut at Cape Adare, Borchgrevink Coast

    71°18'S, 170°12'E. Hut built in February 1899 during the Southern Cross Expedition, 1898-1900 led by Carsten E. Borchgrevink. There are three huts. Two date from Borchgrevink's expedition and one from Scott's Northern Party, 1910-11.

    23 Grave at Cape Adare, Borchgrevink Coast

    71°17'S, 170°13'E. Grave of Norwegian biologist Nicolai Hanson, a member of Carsten E. Borchgrevink's Southern Cross Expedition, 1898-1900. This is the first known grave in the Antarctic.

    24 Rock cairn at Mount Betty, Queen Maud Range

    85°11'S, 163°47'W. Rock cairn, known as 'Amundsen's cairn', on Mount Betty, erected by Roald Amundsen on 6 January 1912 on his way back to 'Framheim' from the South Pole.

    25 Hut and plaque at Framnësodden, Peter I Øy

    68°50'S, 90°43'W. Hut and plaque built by Norwegian Captain Nils Larsen in February 1929. The plaque is inscribed 'Norvegia-ekspedisjonen 2/2 1929'.

    26 Installations at Barry Island, Debenham Islands, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula

    68°07'S, 67°06'W. Abandoned installations of San Martin Station (Argentina), with cross, flag mast, and monolith built in 1951.

    27 Cairn with plaque at Megalestris Hill, Petermann Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    65°10'S, 64°09'W. Cairn with plaque erected in 1909 by the second French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste E. A. Charcot.

    28 Cairn, pillar and plaque at Port Charcot, Booth Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    65°03'S, 64°02'W. Rock cairn with wooden pillar and plaque inscribed with the names of the first French expedition led by Jean-Baptiste E. A. Charcot which wintered here in 1904 aboard Le Français.

    29 Lighthouse on Lambda Island, Melchior Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

    64°18'S, 62°58'W. Lighthouse named Primero de Mayo erected by Argentina in 1942. This was the first Argentine lighthouse in the Antarctic.

    30 Shelter at Paradise Harbour, Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    64°49'S, 62°51'W. Shelter erected in 1950 near the Gabriel Gonzales Videla Base (Chile) to honour Gabriel Gonzales Videla, the first Head of State to visit the Antarctic.

    31 Plaque at Whalers Bay, Deception Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°58'S, 60°34'W. Memorial plaque marking the position of a cemetery where some 40 Norwegian whalers were buried in the first half of the twentieth century. The cemetery was swept away by a volcanic eruption in February 1969.

    32 Monolith on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°28'S, 59°40'W. Concrete monolith erected in 1947 near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile). Point of reference for Chilean Antarctic hydrographic surveys.

    33 Shelter, cross and plaque on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°29'S, 59°40'W. Shelter and cross with plaque near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile). Named in memory of Lieutenant-Commander Gonzales Pacheco, who died in 1960 while in charge of the station.

    34 Bust on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°30'S, 59°41'W. Bust at Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile) of the Chilean naval hero Arturo Prat, erected in 1947.

    35 Cross and statue on Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°29'S, 59°40'W. Wooden cross and statue of the Virgin of Carmen erected in 1947 near Capitan Arturo Prat Base (Chile).

    36 Plaque at Potter Cove, King George Island, South Shetland Islands

    62°14'S, 58°39'W. Metal plaque erected by Eduard Dallmann to commemorate the visit of his German expedition on 1 March 1874 on board Grönland, the first steamship to reach Antarctica.

    37 Statue at Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula

    63°19'S, 57°54'W. Statue at General Bernard O'Higgins Base (Chile) of Bernard O'Higgins, the first ruler of Chile to foresee the importance of Antarctica.

    38 Hut on Snow Hill Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    64°22'S, 56°59'W. Hut built in February 1902 by the main party of the Swedish South Polar Expedition led by Otto Nordenskjöld.

    39 Hut at Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula

    63°24'S, 56°59'W. Stone hut built in January 1903 by a party of the Swedish South Polar Expedition.

    40 Bust, grotto, statue, flag mast, graveyard and stele at Hope Bay, Trinity

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  • 1 decade ago

    1. In 1841, explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named for him).

    2. & 3. James Ross sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf (also named for him). Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror.

    4. During an expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole.

    5. On December 14, 1911, an expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier.[

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  • 1 decade ago

    go to the library

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  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    The Historic Huts of the Ross Sea Region. Compiled and written for Antarctic Heritage Trust by Paul Chaplin with reference to material produced by David L. Harrowfield. Published by Antarctic Heritage Trust, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch, New Zealand. 24 pages. No date (ca. late 1990s). This pamphlet includes a map locating 34 historic sites in the Ross Sea Region and highlights the following sites with photographs, floor plans, etc: Scott's Discovery Hut, Shackleton's Cape Royd's Hut, Scott's Cape Evans Hut, and Borchgrevink's Cape Adare Hut.

    Icy Heritage: Historic Sites of the Ross Sea Region. By David L. Harrowfield. (Christchurch: Antarctic Heritage Trust, 1995, 88 pages, numerous color and black and white photo illustrations.) Contents: Map; The Historic Sites: Cape Adare/Robertson Bay [(1) Huts on Ridley Beach; (2) Hanson's Grave; (3) Supply Depot-Ridley Beach; (4) Supply Depot-Cape Adare; (5) Supply Depot, Cairn and Camp Site-Cape Adare; (6) Cape Site-Robertson Bay; (7) Rock Hut-Duke of York Island; (8) Supply Depot-Crescent Bay Duke of York Island; (9) Cave-Penelope Point, Robertson Bay]. Possession Islands [(10) Message Post-Svend Foyn Island]. Coulman Island [(11) Message Post-Cape Wadworth]. Terra Nova Bay [(12) Site of Ice Cave-Inexpressible Island; (13) Supply Depot-Hells Gate Moraine]. Ross Island [(14) Building-Hut Point; (15) Cross-Hut Point; (16) Building-Cape Royds; (17) Building-Cape Evans; (18) Cross-Wind Vane Hill, Cape Evans; (19) Message Post-Cape Crozier; (20) Rock Hut-Cape Crozier; (21) Supply Depot-Mount Cis; (22) Cross-Observation Hill]. South Victoria Land [(23) Supply Depot-Ferrar Glacier; (24) Supply Depot-Cathdral Rocks, Ferrar Glacier; (25) Supply Depot-Davis Bay (now Salmon Bay); (26) 'Granite House'-Cape Geology, Granite Harbour; (27) Camp Site-Devils Punchbowl, Granite Harbour; (28) Supply Depot and Cairn-Cape Roberts; (29) Supply Depot-Depot Island; (30) Camp Site, Supply Depot and Cairn-Cape Bernacchi; (31) Supply Depot-Butter Point, Bowers Piedmont Glacier. Queen Maud Mountains [(32) Amundsen's Cairn-Mount Betty]. Queen Alexandra Range [(33) 'Prestrud's Cairn'-Scott Nunataks]. Rockefeller Mountains [(34) Fokker Aircraft-Beryl Lake]. Working to Save the Past. The Early Expeditions. List of Sites. Selected Bibliography. Glossary. Index. Each site is fully described.

    Mawson's Huts: An Antarctic Expedition Journal. By Alasdair McGregor, Foreword by Sir Edmund Hillary. (Alexandria, NSW, Australia: Hale & Iremonger Pty Ltd, 1998, 194 pages, color photographic illustrations and black and white drawings in the text. ISBN: 086806653-2) "In early January 1912, a party of 18 young men landed on a small rocky peninsula on the coast of Antarctica, directly to the south of Australia. In doing so, they had journeyed past the edge of the then known world. Over the next two years they struggled against appalling winds and cold, yet managed to explore significant tracts of the ice-bound coast and hinterland in pursuit of scientific knowledge. Their leader was 30-year-old geologist from Adelaide, Dr Douglas Mawson. The story of his survival after the death of his two companions while far from the expedition's base camp has justly become the suff of legend.

    Nearly 86 years later another party landed on the still remote and wild Cape Denison, the site of Mawson's winter quarters. Their aim was to rescue the huts that Mawson's men sheltered and worked in from unrelenting assaults of wind, ice and time. In so doing the party ensured that these rare and priceless relics from the heroic era of Antarctic exploration, the age of Scott, Amundsen and Shackleton, would survive to their centenary and beyond.

    For nearly two months over the summer of 1997-8, 13 members of the AAP Mawson's Huts Foundation work party battled what Mawson dubbed the "home of the blizzard" to complete urgent repairs to the Cape Denison huts. Mawson's Huts: An Antarctic Expedition Journal is artist and photographer Alasdair McGregor's personal account of the trials and triumphs of living and working in the windiest place on earth. Vivid descriptions of landscape and wildlife are intertwined with reflections on the history and significance of a great Australian and his vision in this rare glimpse of Antarctica, past and present."

    --From the back cover.

    Reclaiming a Lost Antarctic Base. By Michael Parfit, Photographs by Robb Kendrick. In National Geographic Vol 183, No 3, pp 110-126, March 1993. A survey and restoration team visits "...historic East Base, the United States' first permanent toehold in Antarctica, surrendered to the cold in 1948." East Base was established in 1940 on Stonington Island, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. It was here where the first two women winter-overed: Edith "Jackie" Ronne and Jennie Darlington.

    Sledging into History. By David L. Harrowfield. (Auckland: The Macmillan Company, 1981, 119 pages, numerous color and black and white photo illustrations and plans.) Contents: Preparation for the Field. Sledging into History: Cape Royds. In the Wake of Scott: Cape Evans. They Passed this Way: Hut Point. The Historic Huts and their Future. Appendices: Chronological List of Expeditions to the Ross Dependency Sector of Antarctica. Personnel of Expeditions' Shore Parties. Illustrators with Expeditions of Scott and Shackleton. Provisions--Discovery, Nimrod and Terra Nova Expeditions. Summary of Known Early Historic Sites in the Ross Dependency. Restoration Parties and Caretakers. This book "...is a chronicle of modern caretaking work, and such brief sketches of the personalities, the plans, and the achievements of the pioneers as can be deduced from old encampments, and to old records."

    Two Huts in the Antarctic. By L. B. Quartermain. (Wellington, New Zealand: R. R. Owen, Government Printer, 1963, 85 pages, 30 mostly black and white photo illustrations.) Contents: Two Huts in the Antarctic; The Story of the Huts; The Huts at Cape Adare; The Hut at Hut Point; The Hut at Cape Royds; The Hut at Cape Evans; Interlude; Man Comes Back; Endeavor; Restoration; The Huts Today. Focuses on the history of the Ross Sea huts, their condition when re-visited and their initial restoration.

    Ten Myths About the Preservation of Historic Sites in Antarctica and Some Implications for Mawson's Huts at Cape Denison. By Janet Hughes, Cultural Heritage Research Centre, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Appearing in the Polar Record 36 (197): 117-130 (2000). Contents: Introduction. Misunderstanding of deterioration processes. Simplistic assumptions about how historic buildings should be conserved. Inappropriate comparisons between dissimilar sites. Conclusions. Acknowledgments. References. ABSTRACT: "A review of popular writing on the subject of preservation of historic sites in Antarctica, including buildings, graves, and artefacts, has revealed many misconceptions about the existence and cause of deterioration problems. These myths include the belief that the artefacts inside the Ross Dependency huts are in a near perfect state of preservation and that there is no corrosion in Antarctica because of the dry cold. Further examination, however, shows these views to be incorrect. These and other misconceptions are classified into three groups: (1) misunderstanding or denial of deterioration processes in Antarctic conditions; (2) simplistic assumptions about how historic buildings should be conserved in Antarctica; and (3) inappropriate comparisons between dissimilar sites.

    There has been considerable debate in Australia and New Zealand about how historic Antarctic buildings should be preserved. Proposed preservation methods have covered a wide range from dismantling and repatriation to a museum, re-cladding with new timber, insertion of vapour barriers inside walls to exclude ice ingress, covering buildings with a dome, and, at the other end of the spectrum of views, minimal intervention, The preservation of artefacts has also been an issue, particularly concerning whether artefacts can be effectively preserved in Antarctica or whether it is necessary to treat and store them at museums outside Antarctica. It is important to encourage consideration of all appropriate means of preservation, but it is particularly important that the causes of deterioration are understood (that is, correct diagnosis) before prescribing treatment."

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    HISTORIC HUTS IN THE ANTARCTIC FROM THE 'HEROIC AGE'

    This listing was prepared by Robert K. Healand, Archivist and Curator, Scott Polar Research Institute. It appears here courtesy of Mr Headland and SPRI.

    Existing Huts (7)

    Location Winter Years Expedition Winter Leader (Ship) Maintained by

    Cape Adare 1899 British Antarctic Expedition (1898-1900) Carsten Borchgrevink (Southern Cross) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)

    Hut Point 1902, 1903

    1916 British National Antarctic Expedition (1901-04)

    Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedtion (1914-17) Robert Scott (Discovery)

    . Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)

    Snow Hill Island 1902, 1903 Swedish South Polar Expedition (1901-03) Otto Nordenskjöld (Antarctic) Instituto Antártico Argentino

    Laurie Island 1905-present Oficina Meteorológica Argentina (1904-05) Otto Diebel (Uruguay) Instituto Antártico Argentino

    Cape Royds 1908 British Antarctic Expedition (1907-09) Ernest Shackleton (Nimrod) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)

    Cape Evans 1911, 1912

    1915, 1916 British Antarctic Expedition (1910-13)

    Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-17) Robert Scott (Terra Nova)

    Æneas Mackintosh (1915) Aurora) Antarctic Heritage Trust (N.Z.)

    Commonwalth Bay 1912, 1913 Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14) Douglas Mawson (Aurora) Mawson's Hut Foundation

    R

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