Anonymous
Anonymous asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

有勞大師英翻中~感謝

As the majority of outdoor tourism activities rely on natural ‘climate-dependent’ attractions, the extent of tourist activity in a natural area is dependent on weather and climate (Smith, 1990). Destinations relying on predominantly outdoor facilities are thus most likely to experience a pronounced influence of natural seasonality on their tourism businesses. Examples are coastal resorts and countryside attractions, where the actual pattern of tourist activities is strongly weather dependent (Grant, Human & Le Pelley, 1997; Smith, 1990). Higham and Hinch (2002) point out that, even though climate is particularly important in attracting visitors to Canada, it is often considered as a constraint to tourist development.

Hartmann (1986) takes the view that seasonal variations caused by these natural factors are predictable as they are relatively stable in a particular destination, and recur with only small changes. However, climatic changes, such as global warming, will inevitably have an effect on the natural seasonality of tourism (Butler & Mao, 1997). Agnew and Viner (2001) review the potential impacts of global warming for 10 international tourist destinations and emphasise that the trend towards warmer temperatures will have major consequences for the tourism industry, especially for regions where outdoor recreations are important. Examples of serious impacts include rising sea levels, with a loss of sand on beaches, disappearance of wetlands, with a loss of ecological diversity, flooding, changed migration patterns for animals and birds, an increased risk of forest and heathland fires, with the closure of large areas for summer visitors or the shortening/loss of the skiing season, especially in low-level ski resorts (Smith, 1990). Domestic holiday makers are influenced by short-term weather fluctuations (Agnew & Viner, 2001)

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Northern hemisphere tourist destinations may therefore benefit, in the short term, from warmer temperatures during the summer months, as these encourage many visitors to favour domestic tourism destinations over exotic or Mediterranean destinations. Giles and

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Perry (1998) conclude that the unusually high summer temperatures in 1995 in the UK were a major contributor to the high number of domestic tourists, which provided a boost to British seaside resorts. They also point out that warmer temperatures in the UK will, in

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the long-term, not only mean a more favourable climate for tourism in general, but also greater potentials for an extension of the holiday season and for spontaneous out-of-season short breaks, which are most affected by climate-related factors. The trend

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towards warmer weather might cause a shift in the attractiveness of tourist destinations around the globe (Agnew & Viner, 2001). Smith (1990), therefore, argues that climatic change will make some revision of tourist seasons necessary.

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The term institutionalised seasonality refers to traditional temporal variations formed by human decisions which are often enshrined in legislation (Butler, 1994). BarOn (1975) points out that these variations exist due to holidays and other events at specific times of

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the year, such as Christmas, summer vacations of schools, universities and work places. They thus reflect the social norms and practices of a society (Hinch & Hickey, 1996). Public holidays are one of the most common forms of institutionalised seasonality. Butler

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(1994) remarks that public holidays used to be single days, but these have been expanded into weekends and have become longer breaks, with an increasing importance for the tourism industry. It is important to point out that some public holidays, such as Easter,

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have variable dates and therefore may cause differing effects on certain months from year to year (BarOn, 1975). There are also certain events that recur regularly over a period, such as festivals or other celebrations in specific destinations, which have an influence on

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the seasonality in particular years (Frechtling, 2001).

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就說不要用翻譯軟體了~為什麼還這樣勒= =

2 Answers

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  • 1 decade ago
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    由於大多數的戶外旅遊活動依賴於自然氣候依賴'的景點,程度的旅遊活動在一個自然區,是依賴於天氣和氣候(史密斯, 1990年) 。目的地,依靠為主的戶外設施,因此最有可能經歷一個明顯的影響,自然季節性因素,對他們的旅遊業務。的例子是沿海度假村及郊區景點,那裡的實際分佈的旅遊活動,是強烈的天氣依賴(贈款,人力&樂pelley , 1997年;史密斯, 1990年) 。 higham和hinch ( 2002 )指出,儘管氣候是特別重要的在吸引旅客來加拿大,這是往往被視為一個制約因素,以旅遊開發。

    哈特曼( 1986 )認為,季節變化所造成的這些自然因素是可以預見的,因為他們相對穩定在某一特定的目的地,並再次發生,只有小的變化。然而,氣候變化,如全球變暖,將不可避免地影響到對自然的季節性旅遊(巴特勒與毛澤東, 1997年) 。安格紐和viner ( 2001 )檢討的潛在影響,全球氣候變暖為10名國際旅遊目的地和強調一點,就是趨向,氣溫將有重大後果的,對於旅遊業,特別是為所在地區戶外娛樂是很重要的。的例子,嚴重影響,包括海平面上升,虧損砂海灘上,消失的濕地,損失了生態多樣性,水浸,改變移民模式,為動物及禽鳥,風險增加了森林和石楠火災,與封閉大面積夏季訪客或縮短/損失的滑雪季節,尤其是在低層次的滑雪勝地(史密斯, 1990年) 。國內假日決策者的影響短期天氣波動(安格紐& viner , 2001年)

    北半球的旅遊目的地,可能因此受益,在短期內,從氣溫在夏季的幾個月,因為這些鼓勵,許多旅客贊成國內旅遊目的地超過異國情調或地中海目的地。賈爾斯和佩里( 1998 )得出結論認為,異常高的夏季氣溫在1995年,在英國作出重大貢獻的高一些國內遊客,提供了一劑強心針,英國海濱度假。他們還指出,氣溫在英國,在長遠來說,不僅意味著一個更有利的氣候,為旅遊業的一般,而且更大的潛力,延長假日季節和自發性地地道道的反季節短休息時間,這是受影響最嚴重的氣候有關的因素。趨向由於天氣回暖,可能會導致在轉移的吸引力的旅遊目的地在全球各地(安格紐& viner , 2001年) 。史密斯( 1990年) ,因此,認為氣候變化將作出一些修訂,旅遊季節,必要的。任期制度化的季節性因素,是指傳統的時間變化所形成的人類的決定往往體現在立法(巴特勒, 1994年) 。拜倫( 1975 )指出,這些變化的存在,由於假期和其他活動的特定時段的一年,如聖誕節,暑假的學校,大學和工作場所。因此,他們反映的社會規範和國際慣例,一個社會的( hinch &何克, 1996年) 。公眾假期是其中一種最常見形式的制度化的季節性因素。人巴特勒( 1994年)的言論,公眾假期使用單一天,但這些已擴大到週末,已成為較長的休息時間,與一的重要性與日俱增,為旅遊業的發展。這是很重要的指出,一些公眾假期,如復活節,有可變的日期和因此可能會導致不同的影響,對某些個月,從每年(男爵, 1975年) 。也有某些事件的重演,定期一個時期,如節日或其他慶祝活動在特定的目的地,其中有一定影響力的季節性,在特別的年內( frechtling , 2001) 。

  • Anonymous
    1 decade ago

    因為多數室外旅遊業活動依靠自然` 氣候依賴' 吸引力, 程度旅遊活動在一個自然區域依靠天氣和氣候(史密斯, 1990) 。目的地依靠主要地室外設施是因而很可能體驗自然季節性的發出音的影響對他們的旅遊業企業。例子是沿海手段和鄉下吸引力, 旅遊活動的實際樣式強烈是天氣受撫養者(格蘭特, 人& Le Pelley 1997 年; 史密斯, 1990) 。Higham 和Hinch (2002) 指出, 即使氣候是特別重要在吸引訪客對加拿大, 它經常被考慮作為一個限制對旅遊發展。

    Hartmann (1986) 持看法, 季節變異由這些自然因素造成是可預測的雖然他們是相對地穩定的在特殊目的地, 和復發以唯一零錢。但是, 高潮變動, 譬如全球性變暖, 不可避免地將有一個作用在旅遊業的自然季節性(Butler & 毛1997) 。Agnew 和Viner (2001) 回顧全球性變暖的潛在的影響為10 國際旅遊目的地和強調, 趨向往更加溫暖的溫度將有主要後果為旅遊業產業, 特別是為室外休閒重要的地區。嚴肅的衝擊例子包括上升的海水平, 以沙子在海灘, 沼澤地失蹤損失, 以生態學變化、水淹、被改變的遷移樣式為動物和鳥, 森林和heathland 火一種增加的風險損失, 與大區域關閉為夏天訪客或滑雪季節的shortening/loss, 特別是在低級滑雪勝地(史密斯1990) 。國內假日製作商被短期天氣波動影響(Agnew & Viner 2001 年

    北半球旅遊目的地和這些鼓勵許多訪客傾向國內旅遊業目的地異乎尋常或地中海目的地也許因此從更加溫暖的溫度有益於, 近期, 在夏天月期間, 。Giles andPerry (1998) 認為1995 年, 異常地高夏天溫度在英國是一個主要貢獻者對國內遊人的高數量, 提供一個助力對英國的海邊手段。他們並且指出更加溫暖的溫度在英國意志, inthe 長期, 不僅意味更加有利的氣候為旅遊業總之, 而且更加巨大的潛力在節日的引伸和在自發季節短的斷裂, 是最受影響的由與氣候相關的因素。

    趨向往更加溫暖的天氣也許世界各地導致轉移在旅遊目的地的好看(Agnew & Viner 2001) 。史密斯(1990) 爭辯說, 因此, 高潮變動將做某一修正旅遊季節necessary.The 期限協會化的季節性提到傳統世俗變異由人的決定形成經常被奉祀在立法(Butler 1994) 。(1975) 男爵指出, 這些變異存在由於假日和其它事件在特定時間ofthe 年, 譬如聖誕節、學校的暑假, 大學和工作地點。他們因而反射社會的社會準則和實踐(Hinch & Hickey 1996) 。公休日是協會化的季節性的當中一個最共同的形式。

    Butler(1994) 陳述, 公休日□去□常是天, 但這些被擴展了入週末和有成為的更長的斷裂, 以一個增長的重要性為旅遊業產業。它重要指出, 不少公休日, 譬如復活節, 有易變的日期和也許因此導致不同的作用在某些月每年(1975 男爵) 。有還通常復發在一個期間, 譬如節日或其它慶祝在具體目的地, 有影響在季節性特別是歲月的某些事件(Frechtling, 2001) 。

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