1. ureteric bud (UB)
2. mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation
3. metanephric mesenchyme (MM)
4. E-cadherin immunostaining
資料來源 ~~ Biomaterials 28 (2007) 4806–4817
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a glycosaminoglycan of tissue engineering importance that plays a vital role in mammalian development.
We found that HA has the ability to simultaneously modulate ureteric bud (UB) branching, promote mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation, and promote differentiation of both metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and the UB depending on the concentration and molecular weight (MW) of HA.
Hyaluronidase inhibited branching morphogenesis in both isolated UB and whole kidney cultures, suggesting endogenous HA is required for branching morphogenesis.
HA exhibited morphogen-like properties, stimulating branching morphogenesis at low concentrations (0.1%) and low MW (6.55 kDa),
E-cadherin immunostaining and qPCR of nephron differentiation markers (OAT-1, NaPi-2, AQP-1, and THP) demonstrated that HA of a variety of MWs strongly promotes mesenchymal epithelialization and nephron differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner.
Since the HA synthesis and degradation genes, has-2 and hyal-2, are highly expressed during kidney development, this data suggests that specific sizes and concentrations of HA
may act to independently regulate UB branching and promote tubular maturation, representing a potential switch for ending branching morphogenesis, as well as initiating nephron differentiation.
In addition, the ability of HA to promote in vitro embryonic kidney growth and maturation, together with the biocompatibility and crosslinking capability of HA,
suggests a potential use of HA for both creating an instructive, 3D scaffold for in vitro kidney engineering from developmental tissues, as well as promoting tubule regeneration in injured or cryopreserved kidneys.
- SigmaLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
1. ureteric bud (UB): 可以腎芽稱之, 是腎臟發育的早期結構.
2. mesenchymal-to-epithelial transformation: 間質細胞和上皮之間的交互作用, 是腎芽長出成為永久腎臟所必經的作用
3. metanephric mesenchyme (MM): 也就是永久腎臟發育過程中的間質細胞, 必需和上皮交互作用, 導致腎芽長出成為永久腎臟
4. E-cadherin immunostaining : E-cadherin位於細胞表面, 是細胞與細胞之間的黏附因子(cell adhesion molecules), 中文可稱為鈣黏著素E, 因為其黏著功能和鈣有關 ; immnuostaining是免疫染色, 也就是說用針對E-cadherin 的特異性 抗體來染色證明其存在的位置, 如果細胞表面有E-cadherin 的話, 就會有顏色出來, 反之, 就沒有顏色, 也就是說染不出來, 表示這些細胞表面沒有E-cadherin 的分子Source(s): 100% 自己腦袋中的知識, 100% 自己打的文字