LA asked in 社會與文化語言 · 1 decade ago

請求各位英文能力強的大大幫忙翻譯...要交報告了

Definitions are a critically important and deceptively difficult starting point for understanding what is meant by local and regional development. These are complex and intertwined with conceptions of what local and regional development is for and what it is designed to achieve (PIKE et al., 2006). Referring to conceptions of development, WILLIAMS (1983, p. 103) noted that very difficult and contentious political and economic issues have been widely obscured by the apparent simplicity of these terms. Local and regional development has historically been dominated by economic concerns such as growth, income and employment (ARMSTRONG and TAYLOR, 2000). Development can even be wholly equated with this relatively narrow focus upon local and regional conomic development (BEER et al., 2003, p. 5). For STORPER (1997), local and regional prosperity and wellbeing depends upon the sustained increases in employment, income and productivity integral to economic development.

Rooted in dissatisfaction with mainstream approaches and critiques of orthodox neo-classical economics in the 1960s and 1970s, ‘alternative’ approaches began to question the dominant economic focus of local and regional development on firms in a national and international economic context (GEDDES and NEWMAN, 1999). Taking a particular normative position, more local, even community-level (HAUGHTON, 1999; REESE, 1997), and socially-oriented approaches emerged as part of alternative economic strategies in the UK and USA, often challenging national frameworks through new institutions at the local and regional level, such as enterprise boards, sectoral development agencies and community associations, and contesting capital locally through promoting ‘restructuring for labour’ (COCHRANE, 1983; GOUGH and EISENSCHITZ, 1993; ZEITLIN, 1989; also BINGHAM and MEIR, 1993; FITZGERALD and GREEN LEIGH, 2002).

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  • 1 decade ago
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    要了解當地和區域性的發展, 定義是很重要的起點,但它也很容易令人迷惑 尤其是在當地和區域發展的原因&目標 (PIKE et al., 2006) 上

    參考Williams(1983, p.103)對發展的觀念 他指出因為政經議題的困難&複雜性, 一些表面和簡化的名詞使得發展的定義普遍地被模糊了

    當地和區域性的發展;在歷史上一直以來都被經濟因素主宰:成長 所得 就業率(Armstrong and Taylor, 2000)

    發展甚至可以全盤等同於一個相較之下較狹隘的焦點:當地和地區的經濟發展(Beer et al., 2003, p. 5)

    Storper(1997)認為當地和區域性發展的繁榮和健全有賴於就業 所得持續的增加 和整體的經濟發展

    因為不滿60年代和70年代傳統古典經濟學派的研究方法及論調

    “另類的”的研究方法開始質疑把決定地方和區域性經濟發展的焦點放在研究全國性和國際性的公司 (Geddes& Newman, 1999) 上是否恰當

    站在一個強調基本的立場 更多地方性的甚至是社區層級(Haughton, 1999; Reese,1997)和社會取向的研究方法在英美興起 成為另類的經濟研究策略的一部分

    他們常常藉著地方和區域性的新機構 如企業理事會 部門的發展部和社區協會等挑戰全國性的架構 他們也藉著推動”重建勞動力”挑戰當地的資金

    Source(s): 自己
  • 買大
    Lv 4
    1 decade ago

    您應該還要再出20點把"無聊死了"的回答再翻譯一次

  • 1 decade ago

    定義是一個重要地重要和欺騙地困難的起點為瞭解什麼由地方和區域發展意味。這些是複雜和交錯以構想什麼地方和區域發展是為並且什麼它被設計達到(派克・等2006) 。參見發展的構想, 威廉斯(1983 年, p. 103) 注意到, 非常困難和引起爭論的政治和經濟問題由這些期限明顯的樸素廣泛遮暗了。地方和區域發展由經濟企業歷史上控制了譬如成長、收入和就業(阿姆斯壯和泰勒2000) 。發展可能完全甚而被視同以這個相對地狹窄的焦點在地方和地方conomic 發展(BEER 等2003 年, p. 5) 。為STORPER (1997), 地方和地方繁榮和福利取決於在就業、收入和生產力積分式的被承受的增量對經濟發展。

    紮根於不滿情緒以正統新古典主義的經濟主流方法和批評在60 年代和70 年代, ` 供選擇的' 方法開始對地方和區域發展表示懷疑統治經濟焦點在企業的在全國和國際經濟上下文(GEDDES 和紐曼, 1999) 。接受特殊基準職位, 更加地方, 更加均勻community-level (HAUGHTON 1999 年; REESE, 1997), 和針對社會的方法湧現了作為供選擇的經濟戰略一部分在英國和美國, 當地經常質詢全國框架通過新機關在地方和地方水平, 譬如企業委員會, 部分發展代辦處和社區協會, 和比賽資本通過促進` 更改結構為勞方' (COCHRANE 1983 年; GOUGH 和EISENSCHITZ 1993 年; ZEITLIN 1989 年; 並且BINGHAM 和1993 年; FITZGERALD 和綠色LEIGH, 2002) 。

    Source(s): 嵐...
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