Science and witchcraft?
During the Elizabethan Era in England... I'm writing a paper about witchcraft, and I need to relate science to witchcraft. How did science relate to witchcraft back then? Were scientists considered witches? Where witches only old women who brewed herbs either to poison or to cure somebody? Were there male-witches too? Were there people who did scientific research in England whose work wasn't looked upon approvingly by the church? Were those people tried for practicing witchcraft, or were science and witchcraft not related at all and they were just tried for being scientists? Like what happened with Galileo, did that kind of stuff happen in England too? Or were there not many scientists in England at all? What about philosophy, or the enlightenment thinkers? What about spirituality and supernatural forces? What was science defined as? Was science closer to medicine or philosophy or astrology than actual science? Please cite your sources if you can.
- Louise CLv 71 decade agoFavorite Answer
Scientists were not in general considered to be witches, though some of their activites might be viewed with suspicion. Science and superstition overlapped. For instance, 'astromony' and 'astrology' were frequently used as interchangeable terms, most elizabethans would not have seen much difference between the two. In 'Elizabethan england' Alison Plowden writes:
' It was widely believed that the planets and the signs of the Zodiac exercised a profound influence over human affairs and that men's fates and natures were governed by their stars. elizabethans were in the habit of consulting their favorite astrologer before taking any important decision in the course of their lives. medicine and astrology were still closely allied, for just as it was believed that the moon caused madness, so it was thought that the various parts of the human body were ruled by particular signs of the Zodiac.
The fortune-telling aspect of astrology was frowned on by the church, and teh Puritan writer Philp Stubbes vigorously denounced all 'astrologers, astronomers and prognosticators" Their art, he said, was based on nothing but 'mere conejctures, supposals, likelihood, guesses...conjunction of signs, stars and planets and the like, and not upon any certaing round, knowledge or truth, either of God or of natural reason.' By the end of the Elizabethan era a new mood of scepticism meant that astrology was falling into disrepute and intot he hands of charlatans and swindlers. All the same, there is no doubt that the popular passion for astrology had served to stimulate the serious study of astronomy.
Another branch of science which depended on an improved understanding of astronomy was oceanic navigation. The Engish took the lead in developing the compass. IN 1585, Robert Norman, a seman and compassmaker, announced his important discovery of the dip of the mangetic needle - the result of 20 years experience at sea. Thomas Hood of Cambridge designed a new cross-staff described as "perhpas the first natuical instrtument to measure the sun's altitude by indirect observation. William Barlow, the son of a Bishop, invented an improved compass, and Thomas Hariot designed an improved device for taking altitudes at sea. He also compiled the firs table of amplitudes - the angular distance of the sun from the orizon,which mde it possible to correct the compass daily at sea, at sunrise or sunset.
Elizabethan scientists were practical men who did not remain secluded in laboratories or studies. On the contrary, tehy frequently accompanied the explorers to test their navigational and mathematical theories in the field. Nor did they attempt to confine themselves to a single discipline. "I have taken all knowledge to be my province" wrote Francis Bacon, the great elizabethan inellectual - a claim which seemed in no way unreasonable to his contemporaries. Thomas digges the astronomer, who was among the first to come to terms with the concept of an infinite universe, did not think it beneath his dignity to apply his mathematical genius to the more mundane matters of military fortifications and ballistics. William Glibert, whose work in the field of electro-magnetism set English science on the raod to the discoveries of Isaac Newton and Michael Faraday, was also a well-known medical practitioner and President of the royal college of Physicians.
The Welshman John Dee is probably the best remembered Elizabethan scientist. Dee's obsession with astrology and the cabbalistic arts has damaged his reputation as a serious scholar, but he was in fact a man of enormous learning, another mathematical genius and an experimental and theoretical scientist second to none in his time.
Dee was an earnets and influential promoter of oceanic exploration and expansion. He was consulted by all the voyagers, especially in connection with ocean voyages and colonies in the New World. But forward-looking though he was in some respects, he also wasted time and energy down the unprofitable blind-alleys of alchemy, seraching for the elixir of life and the so-called 'philosopher's stone' which, it was optimistically believed, could turn base metals into gold.
Alechemy was founded on the false theory of matter. The alchemists assumed that all substances were composed of one primitive matter, capable of taking on different form by theimpsiiton of different qualities, such as heat, cold, dryness and moisture. It therefore seemed to follow that if these qualities could be abstracted by chemical processes, the primitve matter could be laid bare, and by further treatment transformed into whatever substance was required. Alchemy was officially illegal in England, and Dr Dee, who had been appointed royal adviser on mystic secrets, pursued his arcane researches under royal protection.'
So you can see that science in the Elizabethan era was a mixture of serious scientific research and what we would regard as superstition, astrology mingling with astronomy, and serious scientists nevertheless pursuing the quest for a way to turn base metals into gold and develop an 'elixir of life'.
Alchemy was officially illegal, but again as you can see Queen elizabeth permitted John Dee and others to practise it.
People who were persecuted as witches were not generally people who were involved ins cientific research. Generally they were people who were suspected of being in league with the devil to do harm to others. Accusations of witchcraft tended to come from people within the same community, the chruch did not generally have much to do with it. Women were more often accused, and in England it seems to have been mostly women who were prosecuted, though in europe overall about 25% of those executed for withcraft were men. In England, witches were hanged, not burned. Courts were generally reluctant to try witches, as it was very difficult to obtain proof, overall about 50% of those tried for witchcraft were acquitted. Witch hunts tended to occur in periods when social conditions were bad, i.e. during outbreaks of disease, bad harvests, or during wars.Source(s): 'elizabethan England' by Alison Plowden 'Witches and Neighbours' by Robin Briggs 'Witch, Wicce, Mother Goose' by Robert W. Thurston
- meretankhLv 51 decade ago
I think you may need to read a little on the mother goddess and will immediately see a correlation. That most myth based cultures were practicing medicine, botany, animal husbandry, women in the 1500's were brutally murdered, tortured simply for cooking in a hearth, it only becomes witchcraft when an institution either church or state labels it so. Yes, this stuff happened in all countries, in England they called these sages Alchemists, tolerated because they believed that with the philosophers stone, they could turn objects into gold, when that didn't happen they were villified, hunted down and killed. As for philosophers or anyone who thought outside the box, were generally burned alive. We are talking about people in power that believed they were the actual hand of God and if you challanged their authority, you were attached a label and gotten rid of.
- Anonymous4 years ago
They are all the same thing, at the quantum level of all existance there is something called the "plank scale" or the unified field. The field at this level is pure conscious awareness, you might call it god. From this scale all other matter is formed, this pure conscious awareness is in all things and all things are in it. Through the quantum delayed choice experiment one can see that it is intelligent, it(existence) makes choices based on the observer. So if one believes strong enough in something like witch craft then it can be manifested into what we know as reality. As goes with all other things like telekinesis, psychokinesis, precognition etc. We are all one at the unified field and our thoughts are tied into all existence, not only in the present but throughout all time.
- jcboyleLv 51 decade ago
Here's a couple of places to look:
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- 1 decade ago
maybe you should read/watch "the crucible"... its all about the salem witch trials and it might help.